Scopine is the metabolite of anisodine, which is a α1-adrenergic receptor agonist and used in the treatment of acute circulatory shock. Target: α1-Adrenergic ReceptorScopine is a tropane alkaloid found in a variety of plants including Mandragora root, Senecio mikanoides (Delairea odorata), Scopolia carniolica and Scopolia lurida. Scopine can be prepared by the hydrolysis of scopolamine. From Wikipedia.
Diosmin is a flavonoid found in a variety of citrus fruits and also an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).
3-Indolepropionic acid is shown to be a powerful antioxidant and has potential in the treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.
Arabinitol, D- is a polyol and its accumulation may cause a neurotoxic effect in human.
Cimifugin is a major components of Yu-ping-feng-san, a Chinese medical formula that is used clinically for allergic diseases and characterized by reducing allergy relapse.
L-Arginine is the nitrogen donor for synthesis of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator that is deficient during times of sickle cell crisis.Target: OthersL-Arginine is an α-amino acid. It was first isolated in 1886. The L-form is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids. At the level of molecular genetics, in the structure of the messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA, CGU, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, and AGG, are the triplets of nucleotide bases or codons that code for arginine during protein synthesis. In mammals, arginine is classified as a semiessential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual.L-Arginine is associated with a decrease in cardiac index while stroke index is maintained in patients with severe sepsis. Resolution of shock at 72 hours is achieved by 40% and 24% of the patients in the L-Arginine and placebo cohorts, respectively. L-Arginine (450 mg/kg during a 15-minute period) amplifies and sustains the hyperemia (38%) and increases absolute brain blood flow after eNOS upregulation by chronic simvastatin treatment (2 mg/kg subcutaneously, daily for 14 days) in SV-129 mice.
18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid is the major bioactive component of Glycyrrhizae Radix and possesses anti-ulcerative, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties.
Deoxycholic acid is specifically responsible for activating the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor TGR5 that stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity.
Hydroxypyruvic acid is an intermediate in the metabolism of Glycine, serine and threonine. It is a substrate for Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase and Glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase.
Oxyresveratrol is neuroprotective and inhibits the apoptotic cell death in transient cerebral ischemia. It effectively scavenges H2O2, NO (IC50 = 45.3 μM), and the artificial free radical 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 = 28.9 μM) In vitro: 1)oxyresveratrol exhibited more than 50% inhibition at 100 μM on L-tyrosine oxidation by murine tyrosinase activity.2) oxyresveratrol showed an IC50 value of 52.7 μM on the enzyme activity. 3) oxyresveratrol works through reversible inhibition of tyrosinase activity rather than suppression of the expression and synthesis of the enzyme. In vivo: 1) Oxyresveratrol (10 or 20 mg/kg) significantly reduced the brain infarct volume by approximately 54% and 63%, respectively, when compared to vehicle-treated MCAO rats.2) oxyresveratrol treatment diminished cytochrome c release and decreasedcaspase-3 activation in MCAO rats. 
Triptophenolide is a colorless crystalline plate isolated from ethyl acetate extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii. IC50 value:Target:In vitro: Triptophenolide can remarkably inhibit the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction induced by DNCB and BSA; and diminished the peripheral blood ANAE+lymphocytes in rats and micc. Moreover, triptophenolide can dramatically increase the amount of total serum complement and significautly decrcase the serum antibody products (1gG ) of rats and mice. The phagocytosis of perioneal exudate macrophages in mice present double effects in vitro .In vivo:
Docosatrienoic acid is a rare ω-3 fatty acid; inhibits LTB4 binding to pig neutrophil membranes with an Ki of 5 μM.
Veratric acid (3,4-Dimethoxybenzoic acid) is an orally active phenolic compound derived from vegetables and fruits, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Veratric acid also acts as a protective agent against hypertension-associated cardiovascular remodelling. Veratric acid reduces upregulated COX-2 expression, and levels of PGE2, IL-6 after UVB irradiation.
S-Methyl-L-cysteine is a natural product that acts as a substrate in the catalytic antioxidant system mediated by methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA), with antioxidative, neuroprotective, and anti-obesity activities.
Dextrose, a simple sugar (monosaccharide), is an important carbohydrate in biology.Target: OthersDextrose(D-glucose), a simple sugar (monosaccharide), is an important carbohydrate in biology.
i-Inositol is a chemical compound, associated lipids are found in many foods, in particular fruit, especially cantaloupe and oranges.
Paclitaxel is a potent anticancer medication which can promote microtubule (MT) assembly, inhibit MT depolymerization, and change MT dynamics required for mitosis and cell proliferation.
Loureirin A is a flavonoid extracted from Dragon's Blood, can inhibit Akt phosphorylation, and has antiplatelet activity.
Arctiin(NSC 315527), a plant lignan that can be extracted from the Arctium lappa (burdock) seeds, is a possible environmental endocrine disruptor compounds and have been shown to influence sex hormone metabolism as well as protein synthesis, steroid biosynthesis. IC50 Value:Target: Othersin vitro: Treatment of PC-3 cells with arctiin decreased the cell number in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in serum-containing condition. Arctiin preferentially induced cell detachment, but did not have anti-proliferation or cytotoxic effects in PC-3 cells. The arctiin-induced effect was inhibited by cycloheximide, indicating that protein synthesis was required . Although arctiin, the active component of AL that has been described in the literature, was not able to reduce degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells, a single high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fraction from the AL extract inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release (IC(50) = 22.2 microg/ml) . The growth inhibition caused by arctiin is associated with the down-regulation of cyclin D1 protein expression. Furthermore, thearctiin-induced suppression of cyclin D1 protein expression occurs in various types of human tumor cells, including osteosarcoma, lung, colorectal, cervical and breast cancer, melanoma, transformed renal cells and prostate cancer. Depletion of the cyclin D1 protein using small interfering RNA-rendered human breast cancer MCF-7 cells insensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of arctiin, implicates cyclin D1 as an important target of arctiin . in vivo: Histopathological evaluation of prostate revealed that all the rats in any group developed adenocarcinoma in dorsolateral lobe of prostate, except two rats in 0.1% arctiin treated and one rat in 0.002% arctiin treated groups without prostate adenocarcinoma development . After oral administration of arctiin (30, 60, 120 mg/kgd) for three weeks, the levels of serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and 24-h urine protein content markedly decreased, while endogenous creatinine clearance rate (ECcr) significantly increased . STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated witharctiin at the dosage of 60 or 40 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal injection for 8 weeks. Blood glucose and 24-h urinary albumin content were measured, and kidney histopathological changes were monitored .
Kinetin (N6-furfuryladenine) belongs to a group of plant growth hormones involved in cell division, differentiation and other physiological processes.IC50 Value: Target:Kinetin is one of the widely used components in numerous skin care cosmetics and cosmeceuticals, such as Valeant products kinerase. Recently, kinetin has the potential to be a treatment for the human splicing disease familial dysautonomia.in vitro: Kinetin-induced cell death reflected by the morphological changes of nuclei including their invagination, volume increase, chromatin condensation and degradation as well as formation of micronuclei showed by AO/EB and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining was accompanied by changes including increase in conductivity of cell electrolytes secreted to culture media, decrease in the number of the G1- and G2-phase cells and appearance of fraction of hypoploid cells as the effect of DNA degradation without ladder formation . The plant cytokinin kinetin dramatically increases exon 20 inclusion in RNA isolated from cultured FD cells .in vivo: Subjects received 23.5 mg/Kg/d for 28 d. An increase in WT IKBKAP mRNA expression in leukocytes was noted after 8 d in six of eight individuals; after 28 d, the mean increase compared with baseline was significant (p = 0.002) .Toxicity: On mice with leukaemia P388, kinetin has no effect on the tumour growth, and it appears to be toxic at the dose of 25 mg/kg .
5Z-7-Oxozeaenol is a natural anti-protozoan compound from fungal origin, acting as a potent irreversible and selective inhibitor of TAK1 and VEGF-R2, with IC50s of 8 nM and 52 nM, respectively.
Squalene is an intermediate product in the synthesis of cholesterol, and shows several pharmacological properties such as hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antioxidant, and antitoxicant activity.
Foresaconitine(Vilmorrianine C) is a norditerpenoid alkaloid isolated from the processed tubers of Aconitum carmichaeli.
Bulleyaconitine A is an analgesic and antiinflammatory drug isolated from Aconitum plants; has several potential targets, including voltage-gated Na+ channels.