Glycerol

Glycerol Structure
Glycerol
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Common Name Glycerol
CAS Number 56-81-5 Molecular Weight 92.094
Density 1.3±0.1 g/cm3 Boiling Point 290.0±0.0 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Formula C3H8O3 Melting Point 20 °C(lit.)
MSDS Chinese USA Flash Point 160.0±0.0 °C

 Use of Glycerol


Glycerol is a clear, colourless, viscous, sweet-tasting liquid. Glycerol is used in sample preparation and gel formation for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

 Names

Name glycerol
Synonym More Synonyms

 Glycerol Biological Activity

Description Glycerol is a clear, colourless, viscous, sweet-tasting liquid. Glycerol is used in sample preparation and gel formation for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Related Catalog
Target

Human Endogenous Metabolite

In Vitro Glycerol is often included in polyacrylamide gels to prevent dissociation of nucleosomes and other protein-DNA complexes during electrophoresis. With glycerol included, fractionation seems to be largely based on particle mass and charge. The concentration of glycerol during electrophoresis strongly affects the separation characteristics of polyacrylamide gels[1]. Glycerol is an inevitable by-product of oils/fats processing, regardless of the pathway. Fermentative metabolism of glycerol has been studied in great detail in several species of the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The use of anaerobic fermentation to convert abundant and low-priced glycerol streams generated in the production of biodiesel into higher value products represents a promising route to achieve economic viability in the biofuels industry[2].
In Vivo Glycerol can induce acute renal failure in rat models. Acute renal failure induced by glycerol or uranyl nitrate reduces the hepato-biliary transport of some drugs, modulates the distribution of drugs into the central nervous system and affects the activity of various hepatic microsomal enzymes [3].
Solvent
In Vitro:

DMSO : ≥ 300 mg/mL (3257.68 mM)

* "≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.

Solubility
1 mM 10.8589 mL 54.2947 mL 108.5894 mL
5 mM 2.1718 mL 10.8589 mL 21.7179 mL
10 mM 1.0859 mL 5.4295 mL 10.8589 mL
Animal Admin Rats: Experimental acute renal failure was induced in male Wistar rats 230-300 g by an injection of glycerol dissolved in saline (50% v/v, 10 mL/kg) into the leg muscle after a 24-h period of water deprivation[3].
Storage
Pure form -20°C 3 years
  4°C 2 years
In solvent -80°C 6 months
  -20°C 1 month
Shipping Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere
SMILES OCC(O)CO
References

[1]. Pennings S, et al. Effect of glycerol on the separation of nucleosomes and bent DNA in low ionic strengthpolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992 Dec 25;20(24):6667-72.

[2]. Yazdani SS, et al. Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: a path to economic viability for the biofuelsindustry. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2007 Jun;18(3):213-9.

[3]. Huang ZH, et al. Expression and function of P-glycoprotein in rats with glycerol-induced acute renal failure. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Oct 20;406(3):453-60.

Related Molecules 3-Methyladenine | Hydrocortisone | Acetylcysteine | Tretinoin | Melatonine | Prostaglandin E2 | Nicotinamide | Adenosine triphosphate | 4-Acetamidophenol | Prostaglandin E1 | Dehydroepiandrosterone | Corticosterone | Progesterone | Docosahexaenoic Acid | NAD+
Related Doc

SDS |COA

*The above documents are provided by Medchemexpress and are for scientific research only.

 Chemical & Physical Properties

Density 1.3±0.1 g/cm3
Boiling Point 290.0±0.0 °C at 760 mmHg
Melting Point 20 °C(lit.)
Molecular Formula C3H8O3
Molecular Weight 92.094
Flash Point 160.0±0.0 °C
Exact Mass 92.047340
PSA 60.69000
LogP -2.32
Vapour density 3.1 (vs air)
Vapour Pressure 0.0±1.3 mmHg at 25°C
Index of Refraction 1.490
Stability Stable. Incompatible with perchloric acid, lead oxide, acetic anhydride, nitrobenzene, chlorine, peroxides, strong acids, strong bases. Combustible.
Water Solubility >500 g/L (20 ºC)

 Toxicological Information

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
MA8050000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Glycerol
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
56-81-5
BEILSTEIN REFERENCE NO. :
0635685
LAST UPDATED :
199712
DATA ITEMS CITED :
50
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C3-H8-O3
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
92.11
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
Q1YQ1Q

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human
DOSE/DURATION :
1428 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - headache Gastrointestinal - nausea or vomiting
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
12600 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - general anesthetic Behavioral - muscle weakness Liver - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
LC50 - Lethal concentration, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
>570 mg/m3/1H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
4420 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - toxic psychosis Cardiac - other changes Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
100 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
5566 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
4090 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
8700 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
91 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
4250 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
27 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
>10 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
53 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
7750 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
16800 mg/kg/28D-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Endocrine - changes in adrenal weight
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
96 gm/kg/30D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Blood - changes in leukocyte (WBC) count Blood - changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol) Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - true cholinesterase
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
560 gm/kg/8W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
100 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 1 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intratesticular
DOSE :
280 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 2 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Paternal Effects - spermatogenesis (incl. genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) Reproductive - Paternal Effects - testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intratesticular
DOSE :
1600 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 1 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - male fertility index (e.g. # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intratesticular
DOSE :
862 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 1 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Paternal Effects - spermatogenesis (incl. genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intratesticular
DOSE :
119 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 1 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Paternal Effects - spermatogenesis (incl. genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) Reproductive - Paternal Effects - testes, epididymis, sperm duct

MUTATION DATA

TEST SYSTEM :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1 gm/kg
REFERENCE :
TGANAK Tsitologiya i Genetika. Cytology and Genetics. For English translation, see CYGEDX. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1967- Volume(issue)/page/year: 19,436,1985 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIH TLV-TWA 10 mg/m3, Inhalable particulate DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW INMEAF Industrial Medicine. (Chicago, IL) V.1-18, 1932-49. For publisher information, see IOHSA5. Volume(issue)/page/year: 9,-,1940 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** EPA FIFRA 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936- Volume(issue)/page/year: 54,7740,1989 MSHA STANDARD:NUISANCE PARTICULATES (mist) DTLWS* "Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Substances in Workroom Air," Supplements. For publisher information, see 85INA8. Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,20,1973 OSHA PEL (Gen Indu):8H TWA 15 mg/m3, total dust CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1910.1000,1994 OSHA PEL (Gen Indu):8H TWA 5 mg/m3, respirable fraction CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1910.1000,1994 OSHA PEL (Construc):8H TWA 15 mg/m3, total dust CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1926.55,1994 OSHA PEL (Construc):8H TWA 5 mg/m3, respirable fraction CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1926.55,1994 OSHA PEL (Shipyard):8H TWA 15 mg/m3, total dust CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1915.1000,1993 OSHA PEL (Shipyard):8H TWA 5 mg/m3, respirable fraction CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1915.1000,1993 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-AUSTRALIA:TWA 10 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-BELGIUM:TWA 10 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-FINLAND:TWA 20 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-FRANCE:TWA 10 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 10 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 10 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 35085 No. of Facilities: 86657 (estimated) No. of Industries: 358 No. of Occupations: 198 No. of Employees: 1085329 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 35085 No. of Facilities: 67054 (estimated) No. of Industries: 310 No. of Occupations: 215 No. of Employees: 2135546 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 1346631 (estimated)

 Safety Information

Personal Protective Equipment Eyeshields;Gloves;half-mask respirator (US);multi-purpose combination respirator cartridge (US)
Hazard Codes F:Flammable
Risk Phrases R36;R20/21/22;R11
Safety Phrases S24/25-S39-S26
RIDADR UN 1282 3/PG 2
WGK Germany 1
RTECS MA8050000
HS Code 2905450000

 Synthetic Route

 Customs

HS Code 2905450000

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