Citric Acid

Citric Acid Structure
Citric Acid
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Common Name Citric Acid
CAS Number 77-92-9 Molecular Weight 192.124
Density 1.8±0.1 g/cm3 Boiling Point 309.6±42.0 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Formula C6H8O7 Melting Point 153-159 °C(lit.)
MSDSCitric Acid MSDS|SDS|pdf download Chinese USA Flash Point 155.2±24.4 °C
Symbol GHS07
GHS07
Signal Word Warning

 Use of Citric Acid


Citric acid is a weak organic tricarboxylic acid found in citrus fruits. Citric acid is a natural preservative and food tartness enhancer.

 Names

Name citric acid
Synonym More Synonyms

 Citric Acid Biological Activity

Description Citric acid is a weak organic tricarboxylic acid found in citrus fruits. Citric acid is a natural preservative and food tartness enhancer.
Related Catalog
Target

Human Endogenous Metabolite

In Vitro Citric acid induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. It inhibits proliferation of HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, but also induces apoptosis and cell cycle-arrest at the G2/M phase (before 24 h) and S phase (after 24 h)[1].
In Vivo Citric acid is found in all animal tissues as an intermediary substance in oxidative metabolism. The administration of citric acid (1–2 g/kg) attenuates LPS-induced elevations in brain MDA, nitrite, TNF-α, GPx, and PON1 activity. In the liver, nitrite is decreased by 1 g/kg citric acid. Citric acid (1-2 g/kg) decreases brain lipid peroxidation and inflammation, liver damage, and DNA fragmentation[2]. Citric acid supplementation increases intestinal calcium and phosphorus absorption and the retention/intake ratio only in rats fed the 1% Ca diet. Citric acidsupplementation together with a calcium-rich diet allows to obtain an increased retention of calcium and phosphorus in bone. The prolonged administration of calcium citrate supplements may therefore help to increase bone mineral concentration[3]. Oral administration of citric acid ameliorates ketosis and protects against the development of diabetic complications in an animal model of type 1 diabetes[4].
Solvent
In Vitro:

DMSO : ≥ 150 mg/mL (780.76 mM)

* "≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.

Solubility
1 mM 5.2051 mL 26.0254 mL 52.0508 mL
5 mM 1.0410 mL 5.2051 mL 10.4102 mL
10 mM 0.5205 mL 2.6025 mL 5.2051 mL
Cell Assay HaCaT cells are treated with different concentrations of citric acid (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 mM) for 24 h; 0.5% of DMSO (vehicle) is used as a control. Cells are then centrifuged at 1000 ×g for 5 min, and cell pellets are dissolved with 0.5 mL of Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing 5 μg/mL PI and viable cells are determined by using a flow cytometer for determination of viable cells[1].
Animal Admin Rats: Rats are induced of diabetes and divided randomly into an untreated diabetic group and two treated diabetic groups, receiving citric acid (2 g/L) in the drinking water, or insulin therapy. Insulin-treated rats receive 3 IU of neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin three times per week. Fasting (12 hr) blood samples are obtained from the tail vein two days after insulin injection for measurement of blood glucose, HbA1c and ketone bodies[4]. [2]Mice: Citric acid is prepared in sterile physiological saline. Mice are randomly divided into five equal groups (six mice each). Mice are treated with either 0.2mL of: sterile physiological saline (group 1) or citric acid at doses of 1, 2, and 4 g/kg, orally (groups 2-4). Treatments are given just prior to endotoxin administration (LPS: 200 lg/kg, injected intraperitoneally, 0.1 mL). The fifth group received just the vehicle, no LPS (negative control). Mice are euthanized after 4 h of LPS or vehicle injection by decapitation under ether anesthesia, where the brain and liver of each mouse are then removed for analysis[2].
Storage
Powder -20°C 3 years
  4°C 2 years
In solvent -80°C 6 months
  -20°C 1 month
Shipping Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere
SMILES OC(CC(CC(O)=O)(C(O)=O)O)=O
References

[1]. Ying TH, et al. Citric acid induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) via caspase- and mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathways. Anticancer Res. 2013 Oct;33(10):4411-20.

[2]. Abdel-Salam OM, et al. Citric acid effects on brain and liver oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. J Med Food. 2014 May;17(5):588-98.

[3]. Lacour B, et al. Stimulation by citric acid of calcium and phosphorus bioavailability in rats fed a calcium-rich diet. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1997;23(2):79-87.

[4]. Nagai R, et al. Citric acid inhibits development of cataracts, proteinuria and ketosis in streptozotocin (type 1) diabetic rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Feb 26;393(1):118-22.

Related Molecules 3-Methyladenine | Hydrocortisone | Acetylcysteine | Tretinoin | Melatonine | Prostaglandin E2 | Nicotinamide | Adenosine triphosphate | 4-Acetamidophenol | Prostaglandin E1 | Dehydroepiandrosterone | Corticosterone | Progesterone | Docosahexaenoic Acid | NAD+
Related Doc

SDS |COA |HNMR

*The above documents are provided by Medchemexpress and are for scientific research only.

 Chemical & Physical Properties

Density 1.8±0.1 g/cm3
Boiling Point 309.6±42.0 °C at 760 mmHg
Melting Point 153-159 °C(lit.)
Molecular Formula C6H8O7
Molecular Weight 192.124
Flash Point 155.2±24.4 °C
Exact Mass 192.027008
PSA 132.13000
LogP -1.72
Vapour Pressure 0.0±1.5 mmHg at 25°C
Index of Refraction 1.575
Storage condition Store at RT.
Stability Stable. Incompatible with bases, strong oxidizing agents, reducing agents, metal nitrates.
Water Solubility 750 g/L (20 ºC)

 Toxicological Information

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
GE7350000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Citric acid
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
77-92-9
BEILSTEIN REFERENCE NO. :
0782061
LAST UPDATED :
199710
DATA ITEMS CITED :
18
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C6-H8-O7
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
192.14
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
QV1XQVQ1VQ

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
REFERENCE :
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 Volume(issue)/page/year: -,658,1986
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
REFERENCE :
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 Volume(issue)/page/year: -,658,1986 ** ACUTE TOXICITY DATA **
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
3 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
OYYAA2 Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. (Oyo Yakuri Kenkyukai, CPO Box 180, Sendai 980-91, Japan) V.1- 1967- Volume(issue)/page/year: 43,561,1992
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
290 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
TOVEFN Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. (18-20 Vadkovskii per. Moscow, 101479, Russia) History Unknown Volume(issue)/page/year: (5),9,1994
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
5500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes Musculoskeletal - other changes
REFERENCE :
TAKHAA Takeda Kenkyusho Ho. Journal of the Takeda Research Laboratories. (Takeda Yakuhin Kogyo K.K., 2-17-85 Jusohon-machi, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532, Japan) V.29- 1970- Volume(issue)/page/year: 30,25,1971
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
5040 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes Musculoskeletal - other changes
REFERENCE :
TAKHAA Takeda Kenkyusho Ho. Journal of the Takeda Research Laboratories. (Takeda Yakuhin Kogyo K.K., 2-17-85 Jusohon-machi, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532, Japan) V.29- 1970- Volume(issue)/page/year: 30,25,1971
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
903 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973- Volume(issue)/page/year: 62,203,1990
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
2700 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes Musculoskeletal - other changes
REFERENCE :
TAKHAA Takeda Kenkyusho Ho. Journal of the Takeda Research Laboratories. (Takeda Yakuhin Kogyo K.K., 2-17-85 Jusohon-machi, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532, Japan) V.29- 1970- Volume(issue)/page/year: 30,25,1971
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
42 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - convulsions or effect on seizure threshold Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - cyanosis Gastrointestinal - changes in structure or function of salivary glands
REFERENCE :
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10- Volume(issue)/page/year: 94,65,1948
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
7 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - tremor Behavioral - convulsions or effect on seizure threshold Behavioral - muscle contraction or spasticity
REFERENCE :
IECHAD Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. (Washington, DC) V.15-62, 1923-70. For publisher information, see CHMTBL. Volume(issue)/page/year: 15,628,1923
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
330 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - convulsions or effect on seizure threshold Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - cyanosis Gastrointestinal - changes in structure or function of salivary glands
REFERENCE :
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10- Volume(issue)/page/year: 94,65,1948 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** EPA FIFRA 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936- Volume(issue)/page/year: 54,7740,1989 *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 19680 No. of Facilities: 28313 (estimated) No. of Industries: 157 No. of Occupations: 112 No. of Employees: 307205 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - X1191 No. of Facilities: 22 (estimated) No. of Industries: 1 No. of Occupations: 2 No. of Employees: 130 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 108 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 19680 No. of Facilities: 49113 (estimated) No. of Industries: 244 No. of Occupations: 182 No. of Employees: 1691218 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 1083005 (estimated)

 Safety Information

Symbol GHS07
GHS07
Signal Word Warning
Hazard Statements H319
Precautionary Statements P280-P305 + P351 + P338-P337 + P313
Personal Protective Equipment dust mask type N95 (US);Eyeshields;Gloves
Hazard Codes Xi:Irritant
Risk Phrases R36/37/38
Safety Phrases S26-S39-S37/39-S24/25-S36/37/39-S45
RIDADR UN 1789 8/PG 3
WGK Germany 1
RTECS GE7350000
HS Code 2918140000

 Synthetic Route

 Customs

HS Code 2918140000

 Articles644

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