尿素

常用名 尿素 英文名 Urea
CAS号 57-13-6 分子量 60.055
密度 1.6±0.1 g/cm3 沸点 165.1±23.0 °C at 760 mmHg
分子式 CH4N2O 熔点 132-135 °C(lit.)
MSDS尿素的MSDS|SDS|pdf下载 中文版 美版 闪点 53.7±22.6 °C

 尿素用途


1.尿素主要用作化肥。工业上还用作制造脲醛树酯、聚氨酯、三聚氰胺-甲醛树脂的原料,在医药、炸药、制革、浮选剂、颜料和石油产品脱蜡等方面也有广泛的作途。尿素加热至200℃时生成固态的三聚氯酸(即氰尿酸)。三聚氰酸的衍生物三氯异氰尿酸、二氯异氰酸钠、异氰尿酸三(2-羟乙酯)、异氰尿酸三(烯丙基)酯、三(3,5-二叔丁基-4-羟基苄基)异氰酸酯、异三聚氰酸三缩水甘油醚、氰尿酸三聚氰胺络合物等有许多重要应用。前两者是新型高档消毒、漂白剂,三氯异氰尿酸全世界总所产能力超过8万t。

2.检验锑和锡,测定铅、铜、镓、磷、碘化物、硝酸盐。

3.作为反刍动物的非蛋白氮源添加于饲料。

4.用作分析试剂,稳定剂。还用于有机合成。

5.用作液体洗涤剂的增溶剂。用于牙膏制备,能抑制乳酸杆菌滋生,并能溶解牙面上的斑膜,因而起抗酸、脱敏作用。也用于化妆品中。还用作检验锑和锡的试剂。用于制备锶盐、烟火等。

6.用于化妆品保湿和增湿。

7.对钢铁、不锈钢化学抛光有增光作用,在金属酸洗中用作缓蚀剂,也用于钯活化液的配制。

更多

 尿素物理化学性质

[ 密度 ]: 1.6±0.1 g/cm3
[ 沸点 ]: 165.1±23.0 °C at 760 mmHg
[ 熔点 ]: 132-135 °C(lit.)
[ 分子式 ]: CH4N2O
[ 分子量 ]: 60.055
[ 闪点 ]: 53.7±22.6 °C
[ 精确质量 ]: 60.032364
[ PSA ]: 69.11000
[ LogP ]: -1.43
[ 外观性状 ]: 白色结晶粉末
[ 蒸汽压 ]: 0.6±0.7 mmHg at 25°C
[ 折射率 ]: 1.528
[ 储存条件 ]:

1.本品应密封于阴凉干燥处保存。

[ 稳定性 ]:

1.有一定的吸湿性,加热超过熔点时即分解。

[ 水溶解性 ]: 1080 g/L (20 ºC)
[ 分子结构 ]:

1、 摩尔折射率:13.78

2、 摩尔体积(cm3/mol):49.5

3、 等张比容(90.2K):135.0

4、 表面张力(dyne/cm):55.3

5、 极化率(10-24cm3):5.46

[ 计算化学 ]:

1.疏水参数计算参考值(XlogP):-1.4

2.氢键供体数量:2

3.氢键受体数量:1

4.可旋转化学键数量:0

5.互变异构体数量:2

6.拓扑分子极性表面积69.1

7.重原子数量:4

8.表面电荷:0

9.复杂度:29

10.同位素原子数量:0

11.确定原子立构中心数量:0

12.不确定原子立构中心数量:0

13.确定化学键立构中心数量:0

14.不确定化学键立构中心数量:0

15.共价键单元数量:1

[ 更多 ]:

1. 性状:白色、无味、无臭的晶体或粉末

2. 密度(g/mL,25/4℃):1.323

3. 相对蒸汽密度(g/mL,空气=1):未确定

4. 熔点(ºC):132.9℃。加热至熔点以上时分解成缩二脲、氯和三聚氰酸。

5. 沸点(ºC,常压):383

6. 沸点(ºC,5.2kPa):未确定

7. 折射率:1.4299

8. 闪点(ºC):未确定

9. 比旋光度(º):未确定

10. 自燃点或引燃温度(ºC):未确定

11. 蒸气压(kPa,25ºC):未确定

12. 饱和蒸气压(kPa,60ºC):未确定

13. 燃烧热(KJ/mol):未确定

14. 临界温度(ºC):未确定

15. 临界压力(KPa):未确定

16. 油水(辛醇/水)分配系数的对数值:未确定

17. 爆炸上限(%,V/V):未确定

18. 爆炸下限(%,V/V):未确定

19. 溶解性:易溶于水、乙醇和苯,1g该品可溶于1ml、10ml95%乙醇、1ml95%沸乙醇、20ml无水乙醇、6ml甲醇和2ml甘油。微溶于乙醚,不溶于氯仿。

 尿素MSDS

第一部分:化学品名称
化学品中文名称: 脲;尿素
化学品英文名称: Urea;Carbamide
中文俗名或商品名:
Synonyms:
CAS No.: 57-13-6
分子式: CH4N2O
分子量: 60.06
第二部分:成分/组成信息
纯化学品混合物
化学品名称:脲;尿素
有害物成分 含量 CAS No.
第三部分:危险性概述
危险性类别:
侵入途径: 吸入 食入 经皮吸收
健康危害: 本品属微毒类。对眼睛、皮肤和粘膜有刺激作用。
环境危害:
燃爆危险:
第四部分:急救措施
皮肤接触: 用肥皂水及清水彻底冲洗。就医。
眼睛接触: 拉开眼睑,用流动清水冲洗15分钟。就医。
吸入: 脱离现场至空气新鲜处。就医。
食入: 误服者,饮适量温水,催吐。就医。
第五部分:消防措施
危险特性: 遇明火、高热可燃。与次氯酸钠、次氯酸钙反应生成有爆炸性的三氯化氮。受高热分解,放出有毒的烟气。
有害燃烧产物:
灭火方法及灭火剂: 雾状水、抗溶性泡沫、二氧化碳、干粉。
消防员的个体防护:
禁止使用的灭火剂:
闪点(℃):
自燃温度(℃):
爆炸下限[%(V/V)]:
爆炸上限[%(V/V)]:
最小点火能(mJ):
爆燃点:
爆速:
最大燃爆压力(MPa):
建规火险分级:
第六部分:泄漏应急处理
应急处理: 隔离泄漏污染区,周围设警告标志,建议应急处理人员戴好口罩、护目镜,穿工作服。用大量水冲洗,经稀释的洗水放入废水系统。或小心扫起,置于袋中转移至安全场所。用水刷洗泄漏污染区,经稀释的污水放入废水系统。
第七部分:操作处置与储存
操作注意事项:
储存注意事项:
第八部分:接触控制/个体防护
最高容许浓度: 中 国 MAC:未制订标准前苏联MAC:10mg/m3 美国TLV—TWA:未制订标准
监测方法:
工程控制: 提供良好的自然通风条件。
呼吸系统防护: 高浓度环境中,佩戴防毒口罩。
眼睛防护: 必要时戴安全防护眼镜。
身体防护: 穿工作服。
手防护: 必要时戴防化学品手套。
其他防护: 工作后,淋浴更衣。注意个人清洁卫生。
第九部分:理化特性
外观与性状: 白色结晶或粉末,有氨的气味。
pH:
熔点(℃): 132.7
沸点(℃): (分解)
相对密度(水=1): 1.335
相对蒸气密度(空气=1):
饱和蒸气压(kPa):
燃烧热(kJ/mol):
临界温度(℃):
临界压力(MPa):
辛醇/水分配系数的对数值:
闪点(℃):
引燃温度(℃):
爆炸上限%(V/V):
爆炸下限%(V/V):
分子式: CH4N2O
分子量: 60.06
蒸发速率:
粘性:
溶解性: 溶于水、甲醇、乙醇,微溶于乙醚、氯仿、苯。
主要用途: 用作肥料、动物饲料、炸药、稳定剂和制脲醛树脂的原料等。
第十部分:稳定性和反应活性
稳定性: 在常温常压下 稳定
禁配物: 强氧化剂、强酸、亚硝酸钠、五氯化磷。
避免接触的条件:
聚合危害: 不能出现
分解产物: 一氧化碳、二氧化碳、氮氧化物。
第十一部分:毒理学资料
急性毒性: LD50:14300mg/kg(大鼠经口) LC50:
急性中毒:
慢性中毒:
亚急性和慢性毒性:
刺激性:
致敏性:
致突变性:
致畸性:
致癌性:
第十二部分:生态学资料
生态毒理毒性:
生物降解性:
非生物降解性:
生物富集或生物积累性:
第十三部分:废弃处置
废弃物性质:
废弃处置方法:
废弃注意事项:
第十四部分:运输信息
危险货物编号:
UN编号:
包装标志:
包装类别:
包装方法:
运输注意事项: 储存于阴凉、通风仓间内。远离火种、热源。保持容器密封。应与氧化剂、食用化工原料分开存放。搬运时要轻装轻卸,防止包装及容器损坏。
RETCS号:
IMDG规则页码:
第十五部分:法规信息
国内化学品安全管理法规:
国际化学品安全管理法规:
第十六部分:其他信息
参考文献: 1.周国泰,化学危险品安全技术全书,化学工业出版社,1997 2.国家环保局有毒化学品管理办公室、北京化工研究院合编,化学品毒性法规环境数据手册,中国环境科学出版社.1992 3.Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety,CHEMINFO Database.1998 4.Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, RTECS Database, 1989
填表时间: 年月日
填表部门:
数据审核单位:
修改说明:
其他信息: 6
MSDS修改日期: 年月日

 尿素毒性和生态

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
YR6250000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Urea
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
57-13-6
LAST UPDATED :
199710
DATA ITEMS CITED :
43
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C-H4-N2-O
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
60.07
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
ZVZ

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
8471 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
>5 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
8200 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex) Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay) Behavioral - antipsychotic
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
5300 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex) Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay) Behavioral - antipsychotic
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intratracheal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
567 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - convulsions or effect on seizure threshold Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - dyspnea Blood - methemoglobinemia-carboxyhemoglobin
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
11 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
6608 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - convulsions or effect on seizure threshold Behavioral - coma
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
9200 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex) Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay) Behavioral - antipsychotic
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
4600 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex) Behavioral - changes in motor activity (specific assay) Behavioral - antipsychotic
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
3 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
3 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
3 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
4800 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Bird - pigeon
DOSE/DURATION :
14800 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Amphibian - frog
DOSE/DURATION :
600 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - domestic
DOSE/DURATION :
511 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - tetany Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - dyspnea Gastrointestinal - changes in structure or function of salivary glands
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
288 mg/m3/17W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - other changes in urine composition Blood - other changes Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - changes in chlorine
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
3024 mg/kg/4W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight Endocrine - changes in thymus weight Related to Chronic Data - changes in testicular weight
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
37800 mg/kg/25W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - changes in brain weight Related to Chronic Data - changes in prostate weight
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
821 gm/kg/1Y-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - neoplastic by RTECS criteria Blood - tumors Blood - lymphoma, including Hodgkin's disease
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
394 gm/kg/1Y-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria Blood - tumors Blood - lymphoma, including Hodgkin's disease
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraplacental
DOSE :
1400 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 16 week(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - abortion
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraplacental
DOSE :
1600 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 16 week(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - abortion
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraplacental
DOSE :
1600 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 16 week(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - abortion
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intrauterine
DOSE :
6 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 18 week(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - abortion
TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis
TEST SYSTEM :
Rodent - hamster Lung
DOSE/DURATION :
13 gm/L
REFERENCE :
GMCRDC Gann Monograph on Cancer Research. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) No. 11- 1971- Volume(issue)/page/year: 27,95,1981 *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 80231 No. of Facilities: 22367 (estimated) No. of Industries: 156 No. of Occupations: 119 No. of Employees: 284911 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - X7915 No. of Facilities: 9 (estimated) No. of Industries: 1 No. of Occupations: 1 No. of Employees: 63 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 9 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 80231 No. of Facilities: 31269 (estimated) No. of Industries: 204 No. of Occupations: 164 No. of Employees: 783504 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 326824 (estimated)

 尿素安全信息

[ 个人防护装备 ]: Eyeshields;Gloves;type N95 (US);type P1 (EN143) respirator filter
[ 安全声明 (欧洲) ]: S26-S36-S24/25
[ 危险品运输编码 ]: NONH for all modes of transport
[ WGK德国 ]: 1
[ RTECS号 ]: YR6250000
[ 海关编码 ]: 3102100001

 尿素合成线路

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文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2: Physical Organic Chemistry (1972-1999), , # 9 p. 1369 - 1375

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文献:Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, , vol. 159, p. 362 Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, , vol. 44, p. 108

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文献:Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, , vol. 145, p. 814,898

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文献:Monatshefte fuer Chemie, , vol. 11, p. 278

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详细
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