丙酮

常用名 丙酮 英文名 acetone
CAS号 67-64-1 分子量 58.079
密度 0.8±0.1 g/cm3 沸点 46.5±3.0 °C at 760 mmHg
分子式 C3H6O 熔点 -94 °C(lit.)
MSDS丙酮的MSDS|SDS|pdf下载 中文版 美版

管制品

闪点 -17.2±0.0 °C
符号 GHS02 GHS07
GHS02, GHS07
信号词 Danger

 丙酮用途


1.丙酮为代表性的低沸点、快干性极性溶剂。溶解能力强,又溶于水,除用作涂料、清漆、硝基喷漆等溶剂外,尚用作纤维素、醋酸纤维素、照相胶片等制造时的溶剂和脱漆剂。丙酮能萃取各种维生素与激素及石油脱蜡。丙酮还是重要的化工原料,用于制造乙酐、甲基丙烯酸甲酯、双酚A、亚异丙基丙酮、甲基异丁基甲酮、己二醇、氯仿、碘仿、环氧树脂、维生素C等。并用作萃取剂、稀释剂等。

2.用于制取有机玻璃单体、双酚A、二丙酮醇、己二醇、甲基异丁基酮、甲基异丁基甲醇、佛尔酮、异佛尔酮、氯仿、碘仿等重要有机化工原料。在涂料、醋酸纤维纺丝过程、钢瓶贮存乙炔、炼油工业脱蜡等方面用作优良的溶剂。在医药工业,是维生素C和麻醉剂索佛那的原料之一,也用作各种维生素和激素生产过程中的萃取剂。在农药工业,丙酮是合成丙烯拟除虫菊酯的原料之一。

3.用作分析试剂,如作溶剂。用作色谱衍生物试剂及液相色谱洗脱剂。

4.用于电子工业,常用作清洗去油剂。

5.常用作乙烯基树脂、丙烯基树脂、醇酸漆、醋酸纤维素以及多种胶黏剂的溶剂。还广泛用于醋酸纤维素、胶片、薄膜和塑料的制造,也是生产甲基丙烯酸甲酯、甲基异丁基酮、双酚A、乙酸酐、乙烯酮以及呋喃树脂的原料。

6.可用作稀释剂、洗涤剂以及维生素、激素类的萃取剂。

7.是基本的有机原料和低沸点溶剂。

更多

 丙酮物理化学性质

[ 密度 ]: 0.8±0.1 g/cm3
[ 沸点 ]: 46.5±3.0 °C at 760 mmHg
[ 熔点 ]: -94 °C(lit.)
[ 分子式 ]: C3H6O
[ 分子量 ]: 58.079
[ 闪点 ]: -17.2±0.0 °C
[ 精确质量 ]: 58.041866
[ PSA ]: 17.07000
[ LogP ]: -0.16
[ 外观性状 ]: 透明液体
[ 蒸汽密度 ]: 2 (vs air)
[ 蒸汽压 ]: 348.4±0.1 mmHg at 25°C
[ 折射率 ]: 1.345
[ 储存条件 ]:

1.本品具高度易燃性,有严重火灾危险,属于甲类火灾危险物质。储存于阴凉干燥、良好通风处,远离热源、火源和有禁忌的物质。所有容器都应放在地面上。但久贮和回收的丙酮常有酸性杂质存在,对金属有腐蚀性。

2.用200L(53USgal)铁桶包装,每桶净重160kg,铁桶内部应清洁、干燥。贮存于干燥、通风处,温度保持在35℃以下,装卸、运输时防止猛烈撞击,并防止日晒雨淋。按防火防爆化学品规定贮运。

3.储存注意事项储存于阴凉、通风良好的专用库房内,远离火种、热源。库温不宜超过29℃。保持容器密封。应与氧化剂、还原剂、碱类分开存放,切忌混储。采用防爆型照明、通风设施。禁止使用易产生火花的机械设备和工具。储区应备有泄漏应急处理设备和合适的收容材料。

[ 稳定性 ]:

1.无色易挥发易燃液体,微有香气。 丙酮能与水、乙醇、多元醇、酯、醚、酮、烃、卤代烃等极性和非极性溶剂相混溶,是一种典型的溶剂。除棕榈油等少数油类外,几乎所有的油脂都能溶解。并能溶解纤维素、聚甲基丙烯酸、酚醛、聚酯等多种树脂。对环氧树脂溶解能力较差,对聚乙烯、呋喃树脂、聚偏二氯乙烯等树脂不易溶解。虫胶、橡胶、沥青、石蜡等则难以溶解。本品属于微毒性,如蒸气浓度不明或超过暴露极限时,应佩带合适的呼吸器。对日光、酸碱不稳定。沸点低,挥发性大。

2.化学性质:丙酮是脂肪族酮类最有代表性的化合物,具有酮类的典型反应。例如,与亚硫酸氢钠形成无色结晶的加成物。与氰化氢反应生成丙酮氰醇[(CH3)2C(OH)CN]。在还原剂作用下生成异丙醇与频哪酮。丙酮对氧化剂化较稳定。在室温以下不会被硝酸氧化。用碱性高锰酸钾或铬酸等强氧化剂氧化时,生成乙酸、甲酸、二氧化碳和水。在碱存在下发生双分子缩合,生成双丙酮醇。2mol丙酮在各种酸性催化剂(盐酸、氯化锌或硫酸)存在下,生成亚异丙基丙酮,再与1mol丙酮加成,生成佛尔酮(二亚异丙基丙酮)。3mol丙酮在浓硫酸作用下,脱去3mol水,生成1,3,5-三甲苯。在石灰、醇钠或氨基钠存在下,缩合生成异佛尔酮(3,5,5-三甲基-2-环己烯-1-酮)。在酸或碱存在下,与醛或酮发生缩合反应,生成酮醇、不饱和酮及树脂状物质。与苯酚在酸存在下,缩合成双酚A。丙酮的α-氢原子容易被卤素取代,生成α卤代丙酮。与次卤酸钠或卤素的碱溶液作用生成卤仿。丙酮与Grignard试剂发生加成作用,加成产物水解后得到叔醇。丙酮与氨及其衍生物如羟胺、肼、苯肼等也能发生缩合反应。此外,丙酮在500~1000℃时发生热裂,生成乙烯酮。在170~260℃通过硅铝催化剂时,生成异丁烯和乙醛;300~350℃时生成异丁烯和乙酸等。

3.易燃有毒物品,毒性中等。轻度中毒对眼及上呼吸道黏膜有刺激作用,重度中毒有晕厥、痉挛,尿中出现蛋白和红细胞等症状,小鼠暴露在丙酮蒸气①30~40mg/L、②150mg/L中2小时,结果:①呈侧卧的中毒症状;②致死。人体发生中毒时,应立即离开现场,呼吸新鲜空气,重者送医院抢救。空气中最高容许浓度1000*10-6。操作现场应保持良好的通风,操作人员应穿戴防护用品。

4.丙酮属低毒类,近似于乙醇。主要对中枢神经系统有麻醉作用,吸入蒸气能引起头痛、眼花、呕吐等症状,空气中的嗅觉界限为3.80mg/m3。对眼、鼻、舌黏膜多次接触能引起炎症。蒸气浓度为9488mg/m3时,60分钟后就会呈现头痛、刺激支气管、昏迷不醒等中毒症状。嗅觉阈浓度1.2~2.44mg/m3。TJ 36-79规定车间空气中最高容许浓度为360mg/m3。

5.稳定性 稳定

6.禁配物 强氧化剂、强还原剂、碱

7.聚合危害不聚合

[ 水溶解性 ]: soluble
[ 分子结构 ]:

1、摩尔折射率:15.97

2、摩尔体积(cm3/mol):75.1

3、等张比容(90.2K):156.5

4、表面张力(dyne/cm):18.8

5、极化率(10-24cm3):6.33

[ 计算化学 ]:

1.疏水参数计算参考值(XlogP):-0.1

2.氢键供体数量:0

3.氢键受体数量:1

4.可旋转化学键数量:0

5.互变异构体数量:2

6.拓扑分子极性表面积17.1

7.重原子数量:4

8.表面电荷:0

9.复杂度:26.3

10.同位素原子数量:0

11.确定原子立构中心数量:0

12.不确定原子立构中心数量:0

13.确定化学键立构中心数量:0

14.不确定化学键立构中心数量:0

15.共价键单元数量:1

[ 更多 ]:

1.性状:无色透明易流动液体,有芳香气味,极易挥发。

2.熔点(℃):-95

3.沸点(℃):56.5

4.相对密度(水=1):0.80

5.相对蒸气密度(空气=1):2.00

6.饱和蒸气压(kPa):24(20℃)

7.燃烧热(kJ/mol):-1788.7

8.临界温度(℃):235.5

9.临界压力(MPa):4.72

10.辛醇/水分配系数:-0.24

11.闪点(℃):-18(CC);-9.4(OC)

12.引燃温度(℃):465

13.爆炸上限(%):13.0

14.爆炸下限(%):2.2

15.溶解性:与水混溶,可混溶于乙醇、乙醚、氯仿、油类、烃类等多数有机溶剂。

16.折射率(n20ºC):1.3589

17.折射率(n25ºC):1.3560

18.黏度(mPa·s,25ºC):0.316

19.比旋光度(º,c=3, 氯仿中):+199.3

20.蒸发热(KJ/mol,56.1ºC):29.11

21.熔化热(KJ/mol,15ºC):5.72

22.生成热(KJ/mol,25ºC,液体):246.98

23.燃烧热(KJ/mol,25ºC,液体):1791.0

24.比热容(KJ/(kg·K),25ºC,定压,气体):1.28

25.沸点上升常数:1.71

26.电导率(S/m,25ºC):5.8×10-8

27.热导率(W/(m·K),室温):1.9762

28.体膨胀系数(K-1,20ºC):0.00144

29.体膨胀系数(K-1,0~100ºC平均):0.00162

30.临界密度(g·cm-3):0.273

31.临界体积(cm3·mol-1):213

32.临界压缩因子:0.237

33.偏心因子:0.306

34.Lennard-Jones参数(A):5.1864

35.Lennard-Jones参数(K):148.07

36.溶度参数(J·cm-3)0.5:19.774

37.van der Waals面积(cm2·mol-1):5.840×109

38.van der Waals体积(cm3·mol-1):39.040

39.气相标准燃烧热(焓)(kJ·mol-1):-1820.7

40.气相标准声称热(焓)( kJ·mol-1) :-217.3

41.气相标准熵(J·mol-1·K-1) :295.46

42.气相标准生成自由能( kJ·mol-1):-152.8

43.气相标准热熔(J·mol-1·K-1):74.52

44.液相标准燃烧热(焓)(kJ·mol-1):-1861.5

45.液相标准声称热(焓)( kJ·mol-1):-248.1

46.液相标准熵(J·mol-1·K-1) :200.0

47.液相标准生成自由能( kJ·mol-1):-155.2

48.液相标准热熔(J·mol-1·K-1):126.6

 丙酮MSDS

国标编号: 31025
CAS: 67-64-1
中文名称: 丙酮
英文名称: acetone
别 名: 二甲(基)酮;阿西通
分子式: C3H6O;CH3COCH3
分子量: 58.08
熔 点: -94.6℃
密 度: 相对密度(水=1)0.80;
蒸汽压: -20℃
溶解性: 与水混溶,可混溶于乙醇、乙醚、氯仿、油类、烃类等多
稳定性: 稳定
外观与性状: 无色透明易流动液体,有芳香气味,极易挥发
危险标记: 7(低闪点易燃液体)
用 途: 基本的有机原料和低沸点溶剂

2.对环境的影响:

一、健康危害

侵入途径:吸入、食入、经皮吸收。 健康危害:急性中毒主要表现为对中枢神经系统的麻醉作用,出现乏力、恶心、头痛、头晕、易激动。重者发生呕吐、气急、痉挛,甚至昏迷。对眼、鼻、喉有刺激性。口服后,口唇、咽喉有烧灼感,然后出现口干、呕吐、昏迷、酸中毒和酮症。 慢性影响:长期接触该品出现眩晕、灼烧感、咽炎、支气管炎、乏力、易激动等。皮肤长期接触可致皮炎。

二、毒理学资料及环境行为

毒性:属低毒类。 急性毒性:LD505800mg/kg(大鼠经口);20000mg/kg(兔经皮);人吸入12000ppm×4小时,最小中毒浓度。人经口200ml,昏迷,12小时恢复。 刺激性:家兔经眼:3950µg,重度刺激。家兔经皮开放性刺激试验:395mg,轻度刺激。 致突变性:细胞遗传学分析:拷贝酒酵母菌200mmol/管。 对生物降解的影响:水中含量4g/L以上时污泥消化受到抑制。水中含量840mg/L时,活性污泥对氨氮的硝化作用降低75%。

危险特性:其蒸气与空气可形成爆炸性混合物。遇明火、高热极易燃烧爆炸。与氧化剂能发生强烈反应。其蒸气比空气重,能在较低处扩散到相当远的地方,遇明火会引着回燃。若遇高热,容器内压增大,有开裂和爆炸的危险。燃烧(分解)产物:一氧化碳、二氧化碳。


3.现场应急监测方法:

气体检测管法;便携式气相色谱法;直接进水样气相色谱法快速比色法《化工企业空气中有害物质测定方法》,化学工业出版社气体速测管(北京劳保所产品、德国德尔格公司产品)


4.实验室监测方法:

气相色谱法《空气和废气监测分析方法》,国家环保局编糖醛比色法《空气和废气监测分析方法》,国家环保局编


5.环境标准:
中国(TJ36-79) 车间空气中有害物质的最高容许浓度 400mg/m3
中国(TJ36-79) 居住区大气中有害物质的最高容许浓度 0.80mg/m3(一次值)
  嗅觉阈浓度 1.2~2.44mg/m3

6.应急处理处置方法:

一、泄漏应急处理

迅速撤离泄漏污染区人员至安全区,并进行隔离,严格限制出入。切断火源。建议应急处理人员戴自给正压式呼吸器,穿消防防护服。尽可能切断泄漏源。防止进入下水道、排洪沟等限制性空间。小量泄漏:用砂土或其它不燃材料吸附或吸收。也可以用大量水冲洗,洗水稀释后放入废水系统。大量泄漏:构筑围堤或挖坑收容;用泡沫覆盖,降低蒸气灾害。用防爆泵转移至槽车或专用收集器内,回收或运至废物处理场所处置。 废弃物处置方法:建议用焚烧法处置。

二、防护措施

呼吸系统防护:空气中浓度超标时,佩戴过滤式防毒面具(半面罩)。眼睛防护:一般不需要特殊防护,高浓度接触时可戴化学安全防护眼镜。身体防护:穿防静电工作服。手防护:戴橡胶手套。其它:工作现场严禁吸烟。注意个人清洁卫生。避免长期反复接触。

三、急救措施

皮肤接触:脱去被污染的衣着,用肥皂水和清水彻底冲洗皮肤。眼睛接触:提起眼睑,用流动清水或生理盐水冲洗。就医。吸入:迅速脱离现场至空气新鲜处。保持呼吸道通畅。如呼吸困难,给输氧。如呼吸停止,立即进行人工呼吸。就医。食入:饮足量温水,催吐,就医。

灭火方法:尽可能将容器从火场移至空旷处。喷水保持火场容器冷却,直至灭火结束。处在火场中的容器若已变色或从安全泄压装置中产生声音,必须马上撤离。灭火剂:泡沫、干粉、二氧化碳、砂土。用水灭火无效。

 丙酮毒性和生态

丙酮毒理学数据:

1.急性毒性

LD50:5800mg/kg(大鼠经口);5340mg/kg(兔经口)

2.刺激性

家兔经皮:395mg,轻度刺激(开放性刺激试验)。

家兔经眼:20mg,重度刺激。

3.亚急性与慢性毒性 大鼠7.22g/m3,每天8h吸入染毒,共20个月,未发现临床及组织病理学改变。

4.致突变性 细胞遗传学分析:酿酒酵母菌200mmol管。性染色体缺失和不分离:小鼠吸入12g/L。

丙酮生态学数据:

1.生态毒性

LC50:4740~6330mg/L(96h)(虹鳟鱼);10mg/L(48h)(水蚤);2100mg/L(48h)(卤虫)

LD50:5000mg/L(24h)(金鱼)

EC50:8600mg/L(5min)(发光菌,Microtox毒性测试);10mg/L(48h)(水蚤)

2.生物降解性

好氧生物降解(h):24~168

厌氧生物降解(h):96~672

3.非生物降解性

水相光解半衰期(h):270

水中光氧化半衰期(h):9.92×104~3.97×106

空气中光氧化半衰期(h):279~2790

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
AL3150000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Acetone
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
67-64-1
LAST UPDATED :
199801
DATA ITEMS CITED :
80
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C3-H6-O
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
58.09
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
1V1

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human
TYPE OF TEST :
Open irritation test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - man
DOSE/DURATION :
2857 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - coma Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - man
DOSE/DURATION :
2857 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - coma Biochemical - Metabolism (Intermediary) - other
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - man
DOSE/DURATION :
440 ug/m3/6M
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - recordings from specific areas of CNS
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - man
DOSE/DURATION :
10 mg/m3/6H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Biochemical - Metabolism (Intermediary) - other carbohydrates
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human
DOSE/DURATION :
500 ppm
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Sense Organs and Special Senses (Olfaction) - effect, not otherwise specified Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - conjunctive irritation Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - man
DOSE/DURATION :
12000 ppm/4H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Gastrointestinal - nausea or vomiting Behavioral - muscle weakness
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Unreported
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - man
DOSE/DURATION :
1159 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
5800 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex) Behavioral - tremor
TYPE OF TEST :
LC50 - Lethal concentration, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
50100 mg/m3/8H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - general anesthetic Behavioral - muscle weakness Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - renal function tests depressed
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
5500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
3 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LC50 - Lethal concentration, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
44 gm/m3/4H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
1297 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
4 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
8 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - ataxia Behavioral - coma Musculoskeletal - joints
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
8 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - coma Gastrointestinal - alteration in gastric secretion
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
5 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
5340 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
20 mL/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
1576 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - muscle contraction or spasticity Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - respiratory depression
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
>9400 uL/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
5 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
273 gm/kg/13W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - changes in bladder weight Blood - normocytic anemia
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
19000 ppm/3H/8W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - changes in brain weight
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
199 mg/m3/8H/45D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - muscle contraction or spasticity
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
546 gm/kg/13W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight Endocrine - changes in spleen weight
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
273 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 13 week(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Paternal Effects - spermatogenesis (incl. genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
31500 ug/m3/24H
SEX/DURATION :
female 1-13 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis
TEST SYSTEM :
Rodent - hamster Fibroblast
REFERENCE :
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982- Volume(issue)/page/year: 22,623,1984 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIH TLV-Not classifiable as a human carcinogen DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 ACGIH TLV-STEL 1782 mg/m3 (750 ppm) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 ACGIH TLV-TWA 1188 mg/m3 (500 ppm) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** EPA FIFRA 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936- Volume(issue)/page/year: 54,7740,1989 MSHA STANDARD-air:TWA 1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,3,1971 OSHA PEL (Gen Indu):8H TWA 1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1910.1000,1994 OSHA PEL (Construc):8H TWA 1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1926.55,1994 OSHA PEL (Shipyard):8H TWA 1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1915.1000,1993 OSHA PEL (Fed Cont):8H TWA 1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 41,50-204.50,1994 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-AUSTRALIA:TWA 500 ppm (1185 mg/m3);STEL 1000 ppm JAN 1993 OEL-AUSTRIA:TWA 750 ppm (1780 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-BELGIUM:TWA 750 ppm (1780 mg/m3);STEL 1000 ppm JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 250 ppm (600 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-FINLAND:TWA 500 ppm (1200 mg/m3);STEL 625 ppm (1500 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-FRANCE:TWA 750 ppm (1800 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-GERMANY:TWA 1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-HUNGARY:TWA 600 mg/m3;STEL 1200 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-INDIA:TWA 750 ppm (1780 mg/m3);STEL 1000 ppm (2375 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-JAPAN:TWA 200 ppm (470 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 750 ppm (1780 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-THE PHILIPPINES:TWA 1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-POLAND:TWA 200 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-RUSSIA:TWA 200 ppm;STEL 200 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWEDEN:TWA 250 ppm (600 mg/m3);STEL 500 ppm (1200 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-SWITZERLAND:TWA 750 ppm (1780 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-TURKEY:TWA 1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3);STEL 1250 ppm JAN 1993 OEL IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO ACETONE-air:10H TWA 250 ppm REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 02820 No. of Facilities: 99713 (estimated) No. of Industries: 350 No. of Occupations: 188 No. of Employees: 1287794 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 02820 No. of Facilities: 97342 (estimated) No. of Industries: 358 No. of Occupations: 215 No. of Employees: 1740164 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 540313 (estimated)

 丙酮安全信息

[ 符号 ]: GHS02 GHS07
GHS02, GHS07
[ 信号词 ]: Danger
[ 危害声明 ]: H225-H319-H336
[ 补充危害声明 ]: Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking.
[ 警示性声明 ]: P210-P305 + P351 + P338-P370 + P378-P403 + P235
[ 个人防护装备 ]: Eyeshields;Faceshields;full-face respirator (US);Gloves;multi-purpose combination respirator cartridge (US)
[ 危害码 (欧洲) ]: F:Flammable
[ 风险声明 (欧洲) ]: R11;R36;R66;R67
[ 安全声明 (欧洲) ]: S9-S16-S26-S45-S36/37
[ 危险品运输编码 ]: UN 1090 3/PG 2
[ WGK德国 ]: 3
[ RTECS号 ]: AL3150000
[ 包装等级 ]: II
[ 危险类别 ]: 3
[ 海关编码 ]: 2914110000

 丙酮制备

丙酮的生产方法较多。古老的方法是用石灰中和木材干馏所得的木醋液,制成乙酸钙,再经热分解制得丙酮。工业上研究过的合成丙酮的方法有:

(1)从乙酸得到乙酸钙,然后分解生成丙酮;

(2)乙炔在氧化锌催化剂上与水蒸气反应生成丙酮;

67-64-1 preparation

(3)乙醇蒸气在铬酸锌催化剂存在下,高温反应生成丙酮;

(4)液化天然气或石脑油氧化制丙酮(氧化产物还包括甲醛,乙酸,丁醇等);

(5)异丙醇氧化或脱氢制丙酮;

(6)异丙醇过氧化氢法制丙酮;

(7)异丙醇与丙烯醛合成丙酮;

(8)异丙苯法制丙酮,联产苯酚以丙烯和苯为原料,经烃化制得异丙苯,再以空气氧化得到氢过氧化异丙苯,然后以硫酸或树脂分解,同时得到丙酮和苯酚;

67-64-1 preparation

(9)丙烯直接氧化法制丙酮 工艺路线与乙烯直接氧化制乙醛法相似;

67-64-1 preparation

(10)对甲基异丙基苯过氧化氢法生产对甲酚,副产丙酮;(11)二异丙苯法生产氢醌,副产丙酮。但工业上实际采用的方法并不很多。目前我国用粮食发酵的生产丙酮仍占较大比重。在合成法中异丙苯法是主要的。由含淀粉的农副产品发酵,制得丙酮,丁醇和乙醇的混合物.三者的比例为丙酮:丁醇:乙醇=32:56:12至25:70:3(重量比).每生产1t丙酮,约耗用11t淀粉或60-66t废糖蜜。异丙苯法是丙酮生产路线中最经济的方法,同时得到苯酚。两者之比是,苯酚:丙酮=1:0.6(重量)。以苯酚计,10万t级装置每吨苯酚消耗丙烯(90%)590kg.

精制方法:由于制法不同,所含杂质也不同。主要杂质有水、醇、醛、醚以及微量的酸性物质等。精制时,一般用无水硫酸钙、碳酸钾、分子筛脱水后蒸馏即可。若要除去醛及其他还原性物质,可分批加入少量高锰酸钾回流,直至紫色不消失为止,再用无水硫酸钙或碳酸钾干燥后精馏;也可以用碱性硝酸银溶液与丙酮作用,过滤、干燥后蒸馏以除去有机杂质。欲得高纯度的丙酮,可将丙酮与亚硫酸氢钠作用,滤出生成的加成产物,乙醚洗涤后用碳酸钠溶液分解,无水碳酸钾干燥后蒸馏。也可以用碘化钠与丙酮反应,滤出结晶,加热即分解出纯丙酮。具体操作如下:

①在1000mL丙酮中,加入溶解有4g硝酸银的30mL水溶解和30mL1mol/L氢氧化钠溶液。搅拌10分钟后过滤,用无水硫酸钙干燥后蒸馏。

②分批加入粉末状的高锰酸钾于丙酮中,加热回流至紫色不消失为止。再加入无水硫酸钙干燥,过滤后分馏。此法适于精制大量的丙酮。

③将100g粉状碘化钠加入440g沸腾的丙酮中,用冰盐冷却到-8℃,析出碘化钠与丙酮的加成物(NaI·3C3H6O)。过滤后移入蒸馏瓶内,稍一加热即分解出纯丙酮。碘化钠可以重复使用。

丙酮在酸或碱作用下发生脱水缩合反应。因此,要得到无水物比较困难。用氯化钙、五氧化二磷、硅胶、氧化铝凝胶、硫酸钠、碳酸钾脱水时也能发生上述反应,故用无水硫酸钙或硫酸镁作干燥剂较好。

(11)工业品丙酮的主要杂质为水、醛、醇等多种有机物。可以先用灼烧过的碳酸钾、无水氯化钙或4A型分子筛脱水处理,然后加入12%的硝酸银溶液(每升丙酮加入34ml)再加入1mol/L氢氧化钠溶液(每升丙酮加入30ml)。振荡充分后静置,过滤后所得滤液用无水硫酸钙脱水干燥;若含有还原性有机物杂质,可在丙酮中分批少量加入粉末状高锰酸钾,边加热边回流,直到生成的紫色不再褪色为止,将丙酮蒸出后脱水干燥。最后于常压下控制加热温度为65~70℃进行蒸馏,收集55~57℃馏分,即为成品。

 丙酮海关

[ 海关编码 ]: 2914110000

 丙酮文献2014

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