Drug Metabolism and Disposition 2015-06-01

Evaluation of cynomolgus monkeys for the identification of endogenous biomarkers for hepatic transporter inhibition and as a translatable model to predict pharmacokinetic interactions with statins in humans.

Xiaoyan Chu, Shian-Jiun Shih, Rachel Shaw, Hannes Hentze, Grace H Chan, Karen Owens, Shubing Wang, Xiaoxin Cai, Deborah Newton, Jose Castro-Perez, Gino Salituro, Jairam Palamanda, Aaron Fernandis, Choon Keow Ng, Andy Liaw, Mary J Savage, Raymond Evers

文献索引:Drug Metab. Dispos. 43 , 851-63, (2015)

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摘要

Inhibition of hepatic transporters such as organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) 1B can cause drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Determining the impact of perpetrator drugs on the plasma exposure of endogenous substrates for OATP1B could be valuable to assess the risk for DDIs early in drug development. As OATP1B orthologs are well conserved between human and monkey, we assessed in cynomolgus monkeys the endogenous OATP1B substrates that are potentially suitable to assess DDI risk in humans. The effect of rifampin (RIF), a potent inhibitor for OATP1B, on plasma exposure of endogenous substrates of hepatic transporters was measured. From the 18 biomarkers tested, RIF (18 mg/kg, oral) caused significant elevation of plasma unconjugated and conjugated bilirubin, which may be attributed to inhibition of cOATP1B1 and cOATP1B3 based on in vitro to in vivo extrapolation analysis. To further evaluate whether cynomolgus monkeys are a suitable translational model to study OATP1B-mediated DDIs, we determined the inhibitory effect of RIF on in vitro transport and pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin (RSV) and atorvastatin (ATV). RIF strongly inhibited the uptake of RSV and ATV by cOATP1B1 and cOATP1B3 in vitro. In agreement with clinical observations, RIF (18 mg/kg, oral) significantly decreased plasma clearance and increased the area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) of intravenously administered RSV by 2.8- and 2.7-fold, and increased the AUC and maximum plasma concentration of orally administered RSV by 6- and 10.3-fold, respectively. In contrast to clinical findings, RIF did not significantly increase plasma exposure of either intravenous or orally administered ATV, indicating species differences in the rate-limiting elimination pathways. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

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