邻二甲苯

常用名 邻二甲苯 英文名 o-Xylene
CAS号 95-47-6 分子量 106.165
密度 0.9±0.1 g/cm3 沸点 145.9±10.0 °C at 760 mmHg
分子式 C8H10 熔点 -26--23 °C(lit.)
MSDS邻二甲苯的MSDS|SDS|pdf下载 中文版 美版 闪点 32.2±0.0 °C
符号 GHS02 GHS07 GHS08
GHS02, GHS07, GHS08
信号词 Danger

 邻二甲苯用途


1.主要用作化工原料和溶剂。可用于生产苯酐;染料;杀虫剂和药物,如维生素等。亦可用作航空汽油添加剂。

2.作溶剂外,还用于制造邻苯二甲酸酐、邻苯二甲腈、二甲苯酚和二甲苯胺的原料,航空汽油添加剂。

3.主要用作溶剂和用于合成油漆、涂料。

更多

 邻二甲苯物理化学性质

[ 密度 ]: 0.9±0.1 g/cm3
[ 沸点 ]: 145.9±10.0 °C at 760 mmHg
[ 熔点 ]: -26--23 °C(lit.)
[ 分子式 ]: C8H10
[ 分子量 ]: 106.165
[ 闪点 ]: 32.2±0.0 °C
[ 精确质量 ]: 106.078247
[ LogP ]: 3.14
[ 外观性状 ]: 无色液体
[ 蒸汽密度 ]: 3.7 (vs air)
[ 蒸汽压 ]: 6.0±0.1 mmHg at 25°C
[ 折射率 ]: 1.500
[ 储存条件 ]:

储存注意事项储存于阴凉、通风的库房。远离火种、热源。库温不宜超过37℃。保持容器密封。应与氧化剂分开存放,切忌混储。采用防爆型照明、通风设施。禁止使用易产生火花的机械设备和工具。储区应备有泄漏应急处理设备和合适的收容材料。

[ 稳定性 ]:

1.稀硝酸氧化生成邻甲苯甲酸。高锰酸钾氧化得到邻苯二甲酸和邻甲基苯甲酸。以五氧化二钒为催化剂,480℃气相氧化生成邻苯二甲酸酐。将二甲苯在光催化下煮沸并通入氯气,生成氯代二甲苯(CH3C6H4CH2Cl);继续通氯时,两侧链上的氢可依次被氯取代。

2.稳定性 稳定

3.禁配物 强氧化剂、卤素

4.聚合危害 不聚合

[ 分子结构 ]:

1、摩尔折射率:35.90

2、摩尔体积(cm3/mol):121.9

3、等张比容(90.2K):282.5

4、表面张力(dyne/cm):28.7

5、极化率(10-24cm3):14.23

[ 计算化学 ]:

1.疏水参数计算参考值(XlogP):无

2.氢键供体数量:0

3.氢键受体数量:0

4.可旋转化学键数量:0

5.互变异构体数量:无

6.拓扑分子极性表面积0

7.重原子数量:8

8.表面电荷:0

9.复杂度:56.4

10.同位素原子数量:0

11.确定原子立构中心数量:0

12.不确定原子立构中心数量:0

13.确定化学键立构中心数量:0

14.不确定化学键立构中心数量:0

15.共价键单元数量:1

[ 更多 ]:

1.性状:无色透明液体,有类似甲苯的气味。

2.熔点(℃):-25

3.沸点(℃):144.4

4.相对密度(水=1):0.88

5.相对蒸气密度(空气=1):3.66

6.饱和蒸气压(kPa):1.33(32℃)

7.燃烧热(kJ/mol):-4845.3

8.临界温度(℃):359

9.临界压力(MPa):3.7

10.辛醇/水分配系数:3.12

11.闪点(℃):16(CC)

12.引燃温度(℃):463

13.爆炸上限(%):7

14.爆炸下限(%):0.9

15.溶解性:不溶于水,可混溶于乙醇、乙醚、氯仿等多数有机溶剂。

16.黏度(mPa·s,25ºC):0.754

17.燃点(ºC):495.5

18.蒸发热(KJ/mol,101.3kPa):36.84

19.蒸发热(KJ/mol,0.889kPa):43.463

20.熔化热(KJ/mol,101.3kPa):13.607

21.生成热(KJ/mol,25ºC,气体):19.008

22.生成热(KJ/mol,25ºC,液体):-24.455

23.燃烧热(KJ/mol,25ºC, 气体):4599.36

24.燃烧热(KJ/mol,25ºC, 液体):4555.90

25.比热容(KJ/(kg·K),25ºC,定压):1.26

26.热导率(×10-4 W/(m·K),16<t<91ºC):(0.1320~1.6979)×10-4t

27.相对密度(20℃,4℃):0.8801

28.常温折射率(n20):1.5055

29.临界密度(g·cm-3):0.287

30.临界体积(cm3·mol-1):370

31.临界压缩因子:0.263

32.偏心因子:0.303

33.Lennard-Jones参数(A):15.06

34.Lennard-Jones参数(K):169.9

35.溶度参数(J·cm-3)0.5:18.453

36.van der Waals面积(cm2·mol-1):8.840×109

37.van der Waals体积(cm3·mol-1):70.660

38.气相标准燃烧热(焓)(kJ·mol-1):-4596.29

39.气相标准声称热(焓)( kJ·mol-1) :19.08

40.气相标准熵(J·mol-1·K-1) :353.94

41.气相标准生成自由能( kJ·mol-1):122.1

42.气相标准热熔(J·mol-1·K-1):132.31

43.液相标准燃烧热(焓)(kJ·mol-1):-4552.86

44.液相标准声称热(焓)( kJ·mol-1):-24.35

45.液相标准熵(J·mol-1·K-1) :246.61

46.液相标准生成自由能( kJ·mol-1):110.46

47.液相标准热熔(J·mol-1·K-1):187.65

 邻二甲苯MSDS

国标编号: 33535
CAS: 95-47-6
中文名称: 1,2-二甲苯
英文名称: 1,2-xylene;o-xylene
别 名: 邻二甲苯
分子式: C8H10;C6H4(CH3)2
分子量: 106.17
熔 点: -25.5℃ 沸点:144.4?
密 度: 相对密度(水=1)0.88;
蒸汽压: 30℃
溶解性: 不溶于水,可混溶于乙醇、乙醚、氯仿等多数有机溶剂
稳定性: 稳定
外观与性状: 无色透明液体,有类似甲苯的气味
危险标记: 7(易燃液体)
用 途: 主要用作溶剂和用于合成涂料

2.对环境的影响:

一、健康危害

侵入途径:吸入、食入、经皮吸收。健康危害:二甲苯对眼及上呼吸道有刺激作用,高浓度时对中枢神经系统有麻醉作用。 急性中毒:短期内吸入较高浓度核武器中可出现眼及上呼吸道明显的刺激症状、眼结膜及咽充血、头晕、恶心、呕吐、胸闷、四肢无力、意识模糊、步态蹒跚。重者可有躁动、抽搐或昏迷,有的有癔病样发作。 慢性影响:长期接触有神经衰弱综合征,女工有月经异常,工人常发生皮肤干燥、皲裂、皮炎。

二、毒理学资料及环境行为

毒性:属低毒类。 急性毒性:LD501364mg/kg(小鼠静脉)生殖毒性:大鼠吸入最低中毒浓度(TDL0):1500mg/m3,24小时(孕7~14天用药),有胚胎毒性。

污染来源:二甲苯是重要的化工原料,有机合成、合成橡胶、油漆和染料、合成纤维、石油加工、制药、纤维素等生产工厂的废水废气,以及生产设备不密封和车间通风换气,是环境中二甲苯的主要来源。运输、贮存过程中的翻车、泄漏,火灾也会造成意外污染事故。代谢和降解:在人和动物体内,吸入的二甲苯除3%~6%被直接呼出外,二甲苯的三种异构体都有代谢为相应的苯甲酸(60%的邻-二甲苯、80%~90%的间、对-二甲苯),然后这些酸与葡萄糖醛酸和甘氨酸起反应。在这个过程中,大量邻-苯甲酸与葡萄粮醛酸结合,而对-苯甲酸必乎完全与甘氨酸结合生成相应的甲基马尿酸而排出体外。与此同时,可能少量形成相应的二甲苯酚(酚类)与氢化2-甲基-3-羟基苯甲酸(2%以下)。残留与蓄积:在职业性接触中,二甲苯主要经呼吸道进入身体。对全部二甲苯的异构体而言,由肺吸收其蒸气的情况相同,总量达60%~70%,在整个的接触时期中,这个吸收量比较恒定。二甲苯溶液可经完整皮肤以平均吸收率为2.25µg/(cm3·min)(范围0.7~4.3µg/(cm3·min))被吸收,二甲苯蒸气的经皮吸收与直接接触液体相比是微不足道的。二甲苯的残留和蓄积并不严重,上面我们已经说过进入人体的二甲苯,可以在人体的NADP(转酶II)和NAD(转酶I)存在下生成甲基苯甲酸,然后与甘氨酸结合形成甲基马尿酸在18小时内几乎全部排出体外。即使是吸入后残留在肺部的3%-6%的二甲苯,也在接触后的3小时内(半衰期为0.5~1小时)全部被呼出体外。评价接触二甲苯的残留试验,主要是测定尿内甲基马尿酸的含量,也有人建议测定咱出气体中或血液中二甲苯的含量,但后者的结果往往并不准确。由于甲基马尿酸并不天然存在于尿中,又由于它几乎是全部滞留的二甲苯代谢物,因而测定它的存在是最好的二甲苯接触试验的确证。二甲苯能相当持久地存在于饮水中。自来水中二甲苯的浓度为5mg/L时,其气味强度相当于5级,二甲苯的特有气味则要过7至8天才能消失;气味强度为3级时则需4至5天。河水中二甲苯的气味保持的时间较短,这与起始浓度的高低有关,一般可保留3至5天。迁移转化:二甲苯主要由原油在石油化工过程中制造,它广泛用于颜料、油漆等的稀释剂,印刷、橡胶、皮革工业的溶剂。作为清洁剂和去油污剂,航空燃料的一种成分,化学工厂和合成纤维工业的原材料和中间物质,以及织物的纸张的涂料和浸渍料。二甲苯可通过机械排风和通风设备排入大气而造成污染。一座精炼油厂排放入大气的二甲苯高达13.18~1145g/h,二甲苯可随其生产和使用单位所排入的废水进入水体,生产1吨二甲苯,一般排出含二甲苯300~1000mg/L的废水2立方米。由于二甲苯在水溶液中挥发的趋势较强,因此可以认为其在地表水中不是持久性的污染物。二甲苯在环境中也可以生物降解,但这种过程的速度比挥发过程的速率低得多。挥发到空中的二甲苯也可能被光解,这是它的主要迁移转化过程。二甲苯由呼气和代谢物从人体排出的速度很快,在接触停止18小时内几乎全部排出体外,二甲苯能相当持久的存在于饮水中。由于二甲苯在水溶液中挥发性较强,因此,可以认为其在地表水中不是持久性污染物。二甲苯在环境中也可以生物降解和化学降解,但其速度比挥发低得多,挥发到空气中的二甲苯可被光解。可与氧化剂反应,高浓度气体与空气混合发生爆炸。二甲苯有中等程度的燃烧危险。由于其蒸气比空气重,燃烧时火焰沿地面扩散。二甲苯易挥发,发生事故现场会弥漫着二甲苯的特殊芳香味,倾泄入水中的二甲苯可漂浮在水面上,或呈油状物分布在水面,可造成鱼类和水生生物的死亡。危险特性:易燃,其蒸气与空气可形成爆炸性混合物。遇明火、高热能引起燃烧爆炸。与氧化剂能发生强烈反应。流速过快,容易产生和积聚静电。其蒸气比空气重,能在较低处扩散至相当远的地方,遇明火会引着回燃。 燃烧(分解)产物:一氧化碳、二氧化碳。


3.现场应急监测方法:

气体检测管法;便携式气相色谱法;水质检测管法快速检测管法《突发性环境污染事故应急监测与处理处置技术》万本太主编气体速测管(北京劳保所产品、德国德尔格公司产品)


4.实验室监测方法:
监测方法 来源 类别
气相色谱法 GB11890-89 水质
气相色谱法 GB/T14677-93 空气
无泵型采样气相色谱法 WS/T153-1999 作业场所空气
气相色谱法 《固体废弃物试验与分析评价手册》中国环境监测总站等译 固体废弃物
色谱/质谱法 美国EPA524.2方法 水质

5.环境标准:
中国(TJ36-79) 车间空气中有害物质的最高容许浓度 100mg/m3(二甲苯)
中国(TJ36-79) 居住区大气中有害物质的最高容许浓度 0.30mg/m3(一次值、二甲苯)
中国(GB16297-1996) 大气污染物综合排放标准(二甲苯) ①最高允许排放浓度(mg/m3):
70(表2);90(表1)
②最高允许排放速率(kg/h):
二级1.0~10(表2);1.2~12(表1)
三级1.5~15(表2);1.8~18(表1)
③无组织排放监控浓度限值:
1.2mg/m3(表2);1.5mg/m3(表1)
中国(待颁布) 饮用水源中有害物质的最高容许浓度 0.5mg/L(二甲苯)
中国(GHZB1-1999) 地表水环境质量标准(I、II、III类水域特定值) 0.5mg/L(二甲苯)
中国(GB8978-1996) 污水综合排放标准 一级:0.4mg/L
二级:0.6mg/L
三级:1.0mg/L


6.应急处理处置方法:

一、泄漏应急处理

迅速撤离泄漏污染区人员至安全区,并进行隔离,严格限制出入。切断火源。建议应急处理人员戴自给正压式呼吸器,穿消防防护服。尽可能切断泄漏源,防止进入下水道、排洪沟等限制性空间。小量泄漏:用活性炭或其它惰性材料吸收。也可以用不燃性分散剂制成的乳液刷洗,洗液稀释后放入废水系统。大量泄漏:构筑围堤或挖坑收容;用泡沫覆盖,抑制蒸发。用防爆泵转移至槽车或专用收集器内,回收或运至废物处理场所处置。迅速将被二甲苯污染的土壤收集起来,转移到安全地带。对污染地带沿地面加强通风,蒸发残液,排除蒸气。迅速筑坝,切断受污染水体的流动,并用围栏等限制水面二甲苯的扩散。

二、防护措施

呼吸系统防护:空气中浓度较高时,佩戴过滤式防毒面具(半面罩)。紧急事态抢救或撤离时,建议佩戴空气呼吸器。眼睛防护:戴化学安全防护眼镜。身体防护:穿防毒物渗透工作服。手防护:戴橡胶手套。 其它:工作现场禁止吸烟、进食和饮水。工作毕,淋浴更衣。注意个人清洁卫生。

三、急救措施

皮肤接触:脱去被污染的衣着,用肥皂水和清水彻底冲洗皮肤。 眼睛接触:提起眼睑,用流动清水或生理盐水冲洗。就医。 吸入:迅速脱离现场至空气新鲜处。保持呼吸道通畅。如呼吸困难,给输氧。如呼吸停止,立即进行人工呼吸。就医。 食入:饮足量水,催吐。就医。

灭火方法:喷水冷却容器,可能的话将容器从火场移至空旷处。。灭火剂:泡沫、二氧化碳、干粉、砂土。

 邻二甲苯毒性和生态

邻二甲苯毒理学数据:

1.急性毒性

LD50:4300mg/kg(大鼠经口);1364mg/kg(小鼠静脉)

LC50:二甲苯,5000ppm(大鼠吸入,4h)

2.刺激性

家兔经皮:二甲苯,500mg(24h),中度刺激。

家兔经眼:二甲苯,87mg,轻度刺激:5mg(24h),重度刺激。

人经眼:二甲苯,200ppm,刺激。

3.亚急性与慢性毒性 大鼠、兔吸入浓度3000mg/m3,每天8h,每周6d,共130d,出现轻度白细胞减少,红细胞和血小板无变化。

4.致畸性 大鼠孕后7~14d吸入最低中毒剂量(TCLo)3000mg/m3(24h),致肌肉骨骼系统发育畸形。

5.致癌性 IARC致癌性评论:G3,对人及动物致癌性证据不足。

6.其他

大鼠吸入最低中毒浓度(TCLo):1500mg/m3(24h)(孕7~14d用药),有胚胎毒性。

二甲苯,人经口LCLo:50mg/kg;人吸入TCLo:200ppm;LCLo:10000ppm(人吸入,6h)

邻二甲苯生态学数据:

1.生态毒性

LC50:13mg/L(24h),16.9ppm/96h(金鱼);42mg/L(96h)(黑头呆鱼,静态);13mg/L(96h)(虹鳟鱼);100~1000mg/L(24h)(水蚤)

EC50:97mg/L(5min)(发光菌,Microtox毒性测试)

2.生物降解性

好氧生物降解(h):168~672

厌氧生物降解(h):4320~8640

3.非生物降解性

光解最大光吸收波长范围(nm):262~269.5

水中光氧化半衰期(h):3.90×105~2.70×108

空气中光氧化半衰期(h):4.4~44

4.其他有害作用 其环境污染行为主要体现在饮用水和大气中,残留和蓄积并不严重,在环境中可被生物降解和化学降解,但这种过程的速度比挥发过程的速度低得多,挥发到大气中的二甲苯也可能被光解。

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
ZE2450000
CHEMICAL NAME :
o-Xylene
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
95-47-6
LAST UPDATED :
199712
DATA ITEMS CITED :
28
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C8-H10
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
106.18
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
1R B1

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
LCLo - Lowest published lethal concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human
DOSE/DURATION :
6125 ppm/12H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
YAKUD5 Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. (Yakugyo Jihosha, Inaoka Bldg., 2-36 Jinbo-cho, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan) V.1- 1959- Volume(issue)/page/year: 22,883,1980
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
5 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
YAKUD5 Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. (Yakugyo Jihosha, Inaoka Bldg., 2-36 Jinbo-cho, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan) V.1- 1959- Volume(issue)/page/year: 22,883,1980
TYPE OF TEST :
LCLo - Lowest published lethal concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
6125 ppm/12H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
JPBAA7 Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. (London, UK) V.1-96, 1892-1968. For publisher information, see JPTLAS. Volume(issue)/page/year: 46,95,1938
TYPE OF TEST :
LCLo - Lowest published lethal concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
30 gm/m3
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - general anesthetic Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - respiratory depression Cardiac - other changes
REFERENCE :
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC. Volume(issue)/page/year: 143,223,1929
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
1550 uL/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974- Volume(issue)/page/year: 58,106,1985
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - species unspecified
DOSE/DURATION :
1500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
JPBAA7 Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. (London, UK) V.1-96, 1892-1968. For publisher information, see JPTLAS. Volume(issue)/page/year: 46,95,1938
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - species unspecified
DOSE/DURATION :
2500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
JPBAA7 Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. (London, UK) V.1-96, 1892-1968. For publisher information, see JPTLAS. Volume(issue)/page/year: 46,95,1938 ** REPRODUCTIVE DATA **
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
150 mg/m3/24H
SEX/DURATION :
female 7-14 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - extra-embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
REFERENCE :
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973- Volume(issue)/page/year: 18,61,1980
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
1500 mg/m3/24H
SEX/DURATION :
female 7-14 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
REFERENCE :
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973- Volume(issue)/page/year: 18,61,1980
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
3000 mg/m3/24H
SEX/DURATION :
female 7-14 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system
REFERENCE :
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973- Volume(issue)/page/year: 18,61,1980
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
500 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 2 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Paternal Effects - spermatogenesis (incl. genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
REFERENCE :
ARANDR Archives of Andrology. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1978- Volume(issue)/page/year: 11,233,1983
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
500 mg/m3/12H
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-15 day(s) after conception
REFERENCE :
ATSUDG Archives of Toxicology, Supplement. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) No.1- 1978- Volume(issue)/page/year: 8,425,1985 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIH TLV-Not classifiable as a human carcinogen DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 ACGIH TLV-STEL 651 mg/m3 (150 ppm) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 ACGIH TLV-TWA 434 mg/m3 (100 ppm) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964- Volume(issue)/page/year: 47,75,1978 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** MSHA STANDARD-air:TWA 100 ppm (440 mg/m3) (skin) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,281,1971 OSHA PEL (Gen Indu):8H TWA 100 ppm (435 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1910.1000,1994 OSHA PEL (Construc):8H TWA 100 ppm (435 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1926.55,1994 OSHA PEL (Shipyard):8H TWA 100 ppm (435 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1915.1000,1993 OSHA PEL (Fed Cont):8H TWA 100 ppm (435 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 41,50-204.50,1994 *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO o-XYLENE-air:10H TWA 100 ppm;STEL 150 ppm REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - M1026 No. of Facilities: 179 (estimated) No. of Industries: 9 No. of Occupations: 25 No. of Employees: 5778 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - M1026 No. of Facilities: 2608 (estimated) No. of Industries: 30 No. of Occupations: 28 No. of Employees: 25994 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 5812 (estimated)

 邻二甲苯安全信息

[ 符号 ]: GHS02 GHS07 GHS08
GHS02, GHS07, GHS08
[ 信号词 ]: Danger
[ 危害声明 ]: H226-H304-H312 + H332-H315-H319-H335-H412
[ 警示性声明 ]: P210-P261-P273-P301 + P310-P302 + P352 + P312-P331
[ 个人防护装备 ]: Eyeshields;Faceshields;full-face respirator (US);Gloves;multi-purpose combination respirator cartridge (US)
[ 危害码 (欧洲) ]: Xn:Harmful
[ 风险声明 (欧洲) ]: R10;R20/21;R38
[ 安全声明 (欧洲) ]: S25-S45-S36/37-S16-S7
[ 危险品运输编码 ]: UN 1307 3/PG 3
[ WGK德国 ]: 2
[ RTECS号 ]: ZE2450000
[ 包装等级 ]: II
[ 危险类别 ]: 3
[ 海关编码 ]: 2902410000

 邻二甲苯合成线路

~92%

文献:Clariant GmbH Patent: EP1398305 A1, 2004 ; Location in patent: Page 3; 4 ;

~0%

详细
文献:Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Patent: US2011/137099 A1, 2011 ; Location in patent: Page/Page column 2; 5; 6 ;

~0%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, , vol. 71, # 3 p. 723 - 734

~%

详细
文献:WO2004/767 A1, ; Page 21-24 ;

~%

文献:Acta Chimica Hungarica, , vol. 119, # 2-3 p. 179 - 184

~%

详细
文献:WO2004/767 A1, ; Page 24-26 ;

~47%

文献:Shim, Sang Chul; Antebi, Shlomo; Alper, Howard Tetrahedron Letters, 1985 , vol. 26, # 16 p. 1935 - 1938

~%

详细
文献:Applied Catalysis A: General, , vol. 466, p. 90 - 97

~%

详细
文献:Applied Catalysis A: General, , vol. 476, p. 19 - 25

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin des Societes Chimiques Belges, , vol. 95, # 12 p. 1059 - 1066

~%

详细
文献:Applied Catalysis A: General, , vol. 466, p. 90 - 97

~73%

文献:Journal of the Chemical Society. Perkin Transactions 2, , # 11 p. 2481 - 2484

~%

详细
文献:US6359185 B1, ; Page column 10 ;

~%

文献:EP1508557 A1, ; Page/Page column 24 ;

~%

详细
文献:WO2004/74219 A2, ; Page 7-8 ;

~%

文献:US2005/113619 A1, ; Page/Page column 4-5 ;

~%

详细
文献:Catalysis Communications, , vol. 45, p. 133 - 138

~%

文献:WO2014/18653 A1, ; Page/Page column 12; 13 ;

~%

详细
文献:WO2004/74219 A2, ; Page 11-12 ;

~%

详细
文献:US2010/174127 A1, ; Page/Page column 1-2 ;

~%

详细
文献:US2012/4487 A1, ; Page/Page column 7 ;

~0%

详细
文献:Canadian Journal of Chemistry, , vol. 62, p. 2540 - 2545

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, , vol. 77, # 6 p. 1249 - 1254

~%

详细
文献:US2010/174127 A1, ; Page/Page column 1-2 ;

~%

详细
文献:WO2014/18653 A1, ; Page/Page column 12; 13 ;

~%

详细
文献:US2006/211902 A1, ; Page/Page column 4-5 ;

~95%

文献:Krueger, Tobias; Vorndran, Katja; Linker, Torsten Chemistry - A European Journal, 2009 , vol. 15, # 44 p. 12082 - 12091

~98%

文献:Wang, Hu; Li, Li; Bai, Xing-Feng; Shang, Jun-Yan; Yang, Ke-Fang; Xu, Li-Wen Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, 2013 , vol. 355, # 2-3 p. 341 - 347

~97%

文献:Wang, Hu; Li, Li; Bai, Xing-Feng; Shang, Jun-Yan; Yang, Ke-Fang; Xu, Li-Wen Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, 2013 , vol. 355, # 2-3 p. 341 - 347

~%

文献:Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii, , vol. 16, p. 445 Chem.Abstr., , p. 951

~93%

文献:Andrade, Juan G.; Maier, Wilhelm F.; Zapf, Lothar; Schleyer, Paul von Rague Synthesis, 1980 , # 10 p. 802 - 803

~15%

文献:Chemical Communications, , # 13 p. 1163 - 1164

~20%

文献:Chemical Communications, , # 13 p. 1163 - 1164

~57%

文献:Radivoy, Gabriel; Alonso, Francisco; Yus, Miguel Tetrahedron, 1999 , vol. 55, # 50 p. 14479 - 14490

~%

详细
文献:US2005/59847 A1, ; Page/Page column 4-5 ;

~70%

文献:Dal Zotto, Christophe; Virieux, David; Campagne, Jean-Marc Synlett, 2009 , # 2 p. 276 - 278

~%

详细
文献:US2004/87822 A1, ; Page 9 ;

~%

文献:US2008/146859 A1, ; Page/Page column 4-5; title page ;

~12%

文献:Chemical Communications, , # 13 p. 1163 - 1164

~%

文献:US6872865 B1, ; Page/Page column 11; 13 ;

~%

文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 55, p. 1669,1673

~0%

详细
文献:Burkow, Ivan C.; Sydnes, Leiv K.; Ubeda, Danielle C. N. Acta Chemica Scandinavica, Series B: Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, 1987 , vol. 41, # 4 p. 235 - 244

~0%

详细
文献:Aitken, R. Alan; Hodgson, Philip K.G.; Morrison, John J.; Oyewale, Adebayo O. Journal of the Chemical Society. Perkin Transactions 1, 2002 , # 3 p. 402 - 415

~%

文献:Synthetic Communications, , vol. 34, # 4 p. 643 - 650

~%

详细
文献:US2008/27257 A1, ; Page/Page column 4 ;

~%

详细
文献:Acta Chimica Hungarica, , vol. 124, p. 269 - 278

~48%

文献:Mohr, Bernhard; Enkelmann, Volker; Wegner, Gerhard Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1994 , vol. 59, # 3 p. 635 - 638

~78%

文献:Gevorgyan, Vladimir; Rubin, Michael; Benson, Sharonda; Liu, Jian-Xiu; Yamamoto, Yoshinori Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2000 , vol. 65, # 19 p. 6179 - 6186

~%

文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry, , vol. 60, # 21 p. 6895 - 6903

~%

文献:US2009/326287 A1, ; Page/Page column 14 ;

~%

详细
文献:WO2011/131647 A1, ; Page/Page column 52-53; 59 ;

~64%

文献:Percec, Virgil; Bae, Jin-Young; Hill, Dale H. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1995 , vol. 60, # 21 p. 6895 - 6903

~86%

文献:Tetrahedron Letters, , vol. 24, # 48 p. 5329 - 5332

~%

详细
文献:J. Appl. Chem. USSR (Engl. Transl.), , vol. 64, # 8.2 p. 1785 - 1788,1642 - 1645

~95%

文献:Kogan, Vladimir Tetrahedron Letters, 2006 , vol. 47, # 43 p. 7515 - 7518

~%

详细
文献:US2007/49780 A1, ; Page/Page column 19-20 ;

~%

详细
文献:US2007/49780 A1, ; Page/Page column 20-22 ;

~0%

文献:Shen, Jing; Yin, Xing; Karpuzov, Dimitre; Semagina, Natalia Catalysis Science and Technology, 2013 , vol. 3, # 1 p. 208 - 221

~%

文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 30, # 7 p. 1176 - 1180 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 7 p. 1474 - 1478

~%

详细
文献:US2007/49780 A1, ; Page/Page column 22 ;

~2%

文献:Chemistry Letters, , # 2 p. 311 - 314

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 110, # 8 p. 2560 - 2565

~%

详细
文献:US2008/58564 A1, ; Page/Page column 13 ;

~%

详细
文献:US2005/277795 A1, ; Page/Page column 3 ;

~67%

文献:Zhao, Wenwen; Wu, Jingjing; Cao, Song Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, 2012 , vol. 354, # 4 p. 574 - 578

~%

文献:Catalysis Science and Technology, , vol. 3, # 1 p. 208 - 221

~%

文献:US2954414 , ;

~%

文献:Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, , vol. 117, p. 1007 Doklady Chemistry, 112-117 <1957> 1105

~%

文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry, , vol. 59, # 14 p. 3830 - 3837

~43%

详细
文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 123, # 1 p. 93 - 99

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 110, # 8 p. 2560 - 2565

~59%

文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1: Organic and Bio-Organic Chemistry (1972-1999), , p. 185 - 186

~%

文献:Chemistry Letters, , # 9 p. 860 - 861

~%

详细
文献:US2008/312480 A1, ; Page/Page column 7 ;

~%

文献:Catalysis Science and Technology, , vol. 3, # 1 p. 208 - 221

~%

详细
文献:Journal of Catalysis, , vol. 300, p. 113 - 124

~%

文献:Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii (Sankt-Peterburg, Russian Federation), , vol. 22, p. 533,536 Chem.Abstr., , p. 2463

~77%

文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 123, # 1 p. 93 - 99

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 108, # 23 p. 7495 - 7501

~%

详细
文献:Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, , vol. 348, p. 199 - 204

~%

详细
文献:Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, , vol. 348, p. 199 - 204

~%

详细
文献:Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, , vol. 348, p. 199 - 204

~%

文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 126, # 6 p. 1804 - 1811

~%

详细
文献:US2005/113617 A1, ; Page/Page column 5-6 ;

~70%

文献:Nakao, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Masahide; Matsumoto, Takuya; Hiyama, Tamejiro Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 2010 , vol. 49, # 26 p. 4447 - 4450

~93%

文献:Nakao, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Masahide; Matsumoto, Takuya; Hiyama, Tamejiro Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 2010 , vol. 49, # 26 p. 4447 - 4450

~73%

文献:Nature Chemistry, , vol. 3, # 2 p. 167 - 171

~55%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 106, # 18 p. 5284 - 5290

~58%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 106, # 18 p. 5284 - 5290

~%

详细
文献:Journal of Catalysis, , vol. 202, # 2 p. 402 - 412

~15%

详细
文献:Journal of the Chemical Society. Perkin Transactions 1, , # 3 p. 402 - 415

~%

文献:Tetrahedron, , vol. 55, # 50 p. 14479 - 14490

~%

详细
文献:Turkish Journal of Chemistry, , vol. 34, # 6 p. 875 - 885

~%

详细
文献:Applied Catalysis A: General, , vol. 425-426, p. 97 - 109

~%

详细
文献:Chemistry - A European Journal, , vol. 4, # 6 p. 993 - 999

~%

详细
文献:Chemistry - A European Journal, , vol. 4, # 6 p. 993 - 999

~%

文献:Chemistry - A European Journal, , vol. 4, # 6 p. 993 - 999

~%

文献:Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii, , vol. 16, p. 445 Chem.Abstr., , p. 951

~%

文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 58, p. 2 Zhurnal Russkago Fiziko-Khimicheskago Obshchestva, , vol. 56, p. 246

~%

文献:Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , p. 177,191 Chem.Abstr., , p. 3065 Chem. Zentralbl., , vol. 113, # I p. 2219

~%

文献:Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, , vol. 91, p. 95,97 Chem.Abstr., , p. 9939

~%

文献:Journal of applied chemistry of the USSR, , vol. 58, # 12 pt 2 p. 2498 - 2502

~%

文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 51, p. 1586

~%

详细
文献:WO2006/88439 A1, ; Page/Page column 9-10 ;

~%

详细
文献:Catalysis Communications, , vol. 12, # 2 p. 95 - 99

~%

详细
文献:ChemCatChem, , vol. 6, # 3 p. 713 - 718

~%

文献:DE964410 , ;

~%

文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, , # 8 p. 594 - 596

~%

文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry, , vol. 48, # 7 p. 1107 - 1110

~%

文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry, , vol. 45, # 9 p. 1633 - 1637

~%

文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 114, # 8 p. 3034 - 3043

~0%

详细
文献:Canadian Journal of Chemistry, , vol. 62, p. 2540 - 2545

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 74, p. 441,443

~%

详细
文献:Catalysis Letters, , vol. 134, # 3-4 p. 191 - 195

~%

详细
文献:Applied Catalysis A: General, , vol. 394, # 1-2 p. 176 - 190

~75%

文献:Nature Chemistry, , vol. 3, # 2 p. 167 - 171

~5%

详细
文献:Organic Process Research and Development, , vol. 7, # 4 p. 577 - 582

~%

文献:Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, , vol. 1, # 1-2 p. 5 - 11

~%

详细
文献:Chemistry Letters, , p. 2165 - 2168

~%

详细
文献:Chemistry Letters, , p. 2165 - 2168

~2%

详细
文献:Chemistry Letters, , # 2 p. 311 - 314

~%

文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 55, p. 1669,1673

~%

详细
文献:Catalysis Letters, , vol. 134, # 3-4 p. 191 - 195

~%

详细
文献:Catalysis Letters, , vol. 134, # 3-4 p. 191 - 195

~%

文献:Organometallics, , vol. 23, # 14 p. 3398 - 3416

~%

文献:Chemical Communications, , vol. 49, # 90 p. 10584 - 10586

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, , vol. 1, # 1-2 p. 5 - 11

~1%

详细
文献:Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, , vol. 58, # 8 p. 1832 - 1839

~%

文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 65, p. 1613,1617 Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii, , vol. 2, p. 755,760

~%

详细
文献:Inorganic Chemistry, , vol. 7, p. 2663

~0%

详细
文献:Applied Catalysis A: General, , vol. 373, # 1-2 p. 122 - 131

~%

详细
文献:Catalysis Letters, , vol. 134, # 3-4 p. 191 - 195

~%

文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 65, p. 1613,1617 Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii, , vol. 2, p. 755,760

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, , p. 1779,1780 Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards (United States), , vol. 37, p. 95,107 Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, , vol. 37, p. 1168,1173 Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, , vol. 41, p. 2573,2576, 2577, 2583 Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 65, p. 803,811 Journal of the Chemical Society, , p. 2156 Journal of the Chemical Society, , p. 1779,1782

~%

详细
文献:Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, , vol. 48, # 12 p. 3413 - 3420

~%

详细
文献:Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, , vol. 48, # 12 p. 3413 - 3420

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, , vol. 1, # 1-2 p. 5 - 11

~1%

文献:Chemistry Letters, , p. 2073 - 2076

~%

文献:Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, , vol. 184, p. 450 Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 66, p. 1119

~%

详细
文献:Green Chemistry, , vol. 14, # 11 p. 3114 - 3125

~%

文献:Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, , vol. 41, p. 615

~%

文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 12, p. 577 Chemische Berichte, , vol. 19, p. 1404

~%

文献:Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, , vol. 170, p. 117 Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, , vol. <2> 26, p. 532

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 112, # 1 p. 10 - 16

~%

文献:Canadian Journal of Chemistry, , vol. 60, p. 1098 - 1100

~%

详细
文献:Journal of applied chemistry of the USSR, , vol. 58, # 12 pt 2 p. 2522 - 2524

~98%

文献:Wilhelm, Dieter; Clark, Timothy; Friedl, Thomas; Schleyer, Paul von Rague Chemische Berichte, 1983 , vol. 116, # 2 p. 751 - 760

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 109, # 8 p. 2534 - 2536

~%

文献:Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry, , vol. 7, p. 364 - 370

~8%

文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1: Organic and Bio-Organic Chemistry (1972-1999), , p. 2887 - 2893

~2%

详细
文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1: Organic and Bio-Organic Chemistry (1972-1999), , p. 2887 - 2893

~%

文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 117, # 8 p. 2313 - 2320

~%

文献:B: B-Verb.9, 5.2.6, page 205 - 215

~%

详细
文献:Green Chemistry, , vol. 14, # 11 p. 3114 - 3125

~%

详细
文献:Green Chemistry, , vol. 14, # 11 p. 3114 - 3125

~%

文献:Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, , vol. 206, p. 1126 Annales de Chimie (Cachan, France), , vol. <11> 11, p. 143,188, 191-194

~0%

详细
文献:Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry, , vol. 59, # 11 p. 1736 - 1737 Zhurnal Fizicheskoi Khimii, , vol. 59, # 11 p. 2894 - 2895

~%

文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 78, p. 6255,6256

~%

详细
文献:Green Chemistry, , vol. 14, # 1 p. 98 - 110

~%

详细
文献:Green Chemistry, , vol. 14, # 11 p. 3114 - 3125

~%

详细
文献:Green Chemistry, , vol. 14, # 11 p. 3114 - 3125

~%

文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 81, p. 4266

~%

文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 72, p. 5503

~5%

详细
文献:Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, , # 11 p. 1786 - 1800

~%

文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 61, p. 2131

~0%

详细
文献:J. Appl. Chem. USSR (Engl. Transl.), , vol. 57, # 6 p. 1244 - 1247,1151 - 1154

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 61, p. 2131 Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 61, p. 1163,1167

~%

详细
文献:Materials Research Bulletin, , vol. 45, # 2 p. 135 - 141

~%

详细
文献:Green Chemistry, , vol. 14, # 1 p. 98 - 110

~%

详细
文献:Green Chemistry, , vol. 14, # 11 p. 3114 - 3125

~%

文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 56, p. 787

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 107, # 13 p. 3840 - 3843

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 37, # 12 p. 2432 - 2435 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 12 p. 2703 - 2707

~%

详细
文献:Journal of Physical Chemistry B, , vol. 102, # 37 p. 7139 - 7147

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 77, p. 5579,5580

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 77, p. 5579,5580

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 61, p. 2131

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 61, p. 2131

~8%

详细
文献:Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, , vol. 54, # 8 p. 2054 - 2063

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 56, p. 447,448

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 74, p. 6246,6248

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 61, p. 2625

~%

详细
文献:Journal of Catalysis, , vol. 223, # 1 p. 54 - 63

~%

详细
文献:Green Chemistry, , vol. 14, # 1 p. 98 - 110

~%

文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry USSR (English Translation), , vol. 22, # 6 p. 1106 - 1114 Zhurnal Organicheskoi Khimii, , vol. 22, # 6 p. 1228 - 1237

~1%

详细
文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry, , vol. 45, # 6 p. 973 - 980

~62%

文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 125, # 1 p. 127 - 142

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, , vol. 90, # 5 p. 809 - 814

~%

详细
文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry, , vol. 50, # 20 p. 3828 - 3831

~0%

详细
文献:Baba, T.; Watanabe, H.; Ono, Y. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 1983 , vol. 87, # 13 p. 2406 - 2411

~17%

详细
文献:Petroleum Chemistry, , vol. 46, # 5 p. 353 - 361

~%

详细
文献:Petroleum Chemistry, , vol. 46, # 5 p. 353 - 361

~%

文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 65, p. 1613,1617 Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii, , vol. 2, p. 755,760

~%

文献:Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, , vol. 419, p. 111

~%

文献:Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, , vol. 156, p. 235

~6%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 34, p. 2489 - 2492 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 12 p. 2690 - 2693

~4%

详细
文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry, , vol. 47, # 21 p. 4050 - 4053

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Chemistry, , vol. 36, # 5-6 p. 251 - 258

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society (Taipei, Taiwan), , vol. 41, # 2 p. 145 - 150

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 112, # 15 p. 5854 - 5861

~%

文献:Tetrahedron, , vol. 42, # 17 p. 4729 - 4742

~%

文献:Tetrahedron, , vol. 42, # 17 p. 4729 - 4742

~%

文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 37, # 12 p. 2419 - 2423 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 12 p. 2689 - 2694

~5%

详细
文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry, , vol. 47, # 21 p. 4050 - 4053

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, , # 5 p. 496 - 500

~%

文献:Tetrahedron, , vol. 42, # 17 p. 4729 - 4742

~%

详细
文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry, , vol. 46, p. 5276 - 5279

~%

文献:Spectrochimica Acta, Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, , vol. 44, # 11 p. 1147 - 1152

~%

文献:Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii, , vol. 9, p. 1086 Chem. Zentralbl., , vol. 111, # I p. 1604

~%

详细
文献:Journal of Physical Chemistry, , vol. 90, # 23 p. 6233 - 6237

~%

文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, , # 16 p. 1283 - 1285

~%

文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2: Physical Organic Chemistry (1972-1999), , # 8 p. 1167 - 1170

~2%

详细
文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry, , vol. 54, # 7 p. 1752 - 1755

~%

详细
文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry, , vol. 59, # 14 p. 3821 - 3829

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, , # 20 p. 1434 - 1436

~%

文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 52, p. 2823,2825

~%

详细
文献:Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, , vol. 67, # 3.2 p. 414 - 416 Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii (Sankt-Peterburg, Russian Federation), , vol. 67, # 3 p. 464 - 466

~0%

详细
文献:Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry, , vol. 59, # 11 p. 1736 - 1737 Zhurnal Fizicheskoi Khimii, , vol. 59, # 11 p. 2894 - 2895

~%

文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 29, p. 1774 - 1778 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 11 p. 2513 - 2518

~%

文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry, , vol. 57, # 8 p. 2438 - 2442

~%

文献:Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), , vol. 330, # 5 p. 717 - 723

~%

文献:Annales de l'Office National des Combustibles Liquides (France), , vol. 5, p. 35,123, 135-174

~%

文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 77, p. 73

~%

文献:Kogyo Kagaku Zasshi, , vol. 33, p. 181,184 J.Soc.chem.Ind.Japan Spl., , vol. 33, p. 65 Chem. Zentralbl., , vol. 101, # I p. 2876

~%

文献:Chemosphere, , vol. 41, # 6 p. 907 - 916

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the American Chemical Society, , vol. 80, p. 3309

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 29, p. 1774 - 1778 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 11 p. 2513 - 2518

~0%

详细
文献:Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry, , vol. 59, # 11 p. 1736 - 1737 Zhurnal Fizicheskoi Khimii, , vol. 59, # 11 p. 2894 - 2895

~8%

文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1: Organic and Bio-Organic Chemistry (1972-1999), , p. 2887 - 2893

~%

详细
文献:Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), , vol. 330, # 5 p. 717 - 723

~%

详细
文献:Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, , vol. 66, # 11.2 p. 1974 - 1975 Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii (Sankt-Peterburg, Russian Federation), , vol. 66, # 11 p. 2607 - 2609

~%

详细
文献:Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , p. 308,309; engl. Ausg. S. 282, 283

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 29, p. 1774 - 1778 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 11 p. 2513 - 2518

~%

详细
文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, , vol. 88, # 14 p. 2101 - 2108

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 30, # 6 p. 1037 - 1041 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 6 p. 1304 - 1309

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 29, p. 1774 - 1778 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 11 p. 2513 - 2518

~2%

详细
文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1: Organic and Bio-Organic Chemistry (1972-1999), , # 16 p. 2301 - 2308

~5%

详细
文献:Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1: Organic and Bio-Organic Chemistry (1972-1999), , # 16 p. 2301 - 2308

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 29, # 6 p. 939 - 944 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 6 p. 1318 - 1323

~%

详细
文献:Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section B Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, , vol. 36, # 3 p. 246 - 251

~%

详细
文献:Chemistry Letters, , p. 2165 - 2168

~%

文献:Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, , vol. 12, # 6 p. 225,227 Chem.Abstr., , p. 2149 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , p. 604,607; engl. Ausg. S. 617, 620

~%

文献:Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, , vol. 184, p. 450

~%

详细
文献:Acta Chimica Hungarica, , vol. 119, # 1 p. 95 - 104

~%

详细
文献:Acta Chimica Hungarica, , vol. 119, # 1 p. 95 - 104

~%

详细
文献:Acta Chimica Hungarica, , vol. 119, # 1 p. 95 - 104

~%

详细
文献:Acta Chimica Hungarica, , vol. 119, # 1 p. 95 - 104

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 29, p. 1774 - 1778 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 11 p. 2513 - 2518

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 29, p. 1774 - 1778 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 11 p. 2513 - 2518

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 30, # 8 p. 1502 - 1505 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , vol. 30, # 8 p. 1833 - 1837

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 35, p. 1352 - 1356 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 7 p. 1492 - 1497

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 30, # 8 p. 1502 - 1505 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , vol. 30, # 8 p. 1833 - 1837

~0%

详细
文献:Journal of Organic Chemistry, , vol. 59, # 4 p. 845 - 849

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 30, # 8 p. 1502 - 1505 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , vol. 30, # 8 p. 1833 - 1837

~%

详细
文献:Polish Journal of Chemistry, , vol. 70, # 12 p. 1562 - 1572

~%

详细
文献:Journal of Physical Chemistry B, , vol. 101, # 35 p. 6929 - 6932

~%

文献:Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, , vol. 91, p. 95,97 Chem.Abstr., , p. 9939

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 33, p. 426 - 429 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , p. 462 - 464

~%

文献:Journal of Physical Chemistry, , vol. 63, p. 476,478

~%

文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 56, p. 787

~%

详细
文献:Acta Chimica Hungarica, , vol. 119, # 1 p. 95 - 104

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 39, # 6 p. 1121 - 1127 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 6 p. 1250 - 1257

~%

详细
文献:Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of Chemical Science (English Translation), , vol. 39, # 6 p. 1121 - 1127 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , # 6 p. 1250 - 1257

~%

详细
文献:Acta Chimica Hungarica, , vol. 119, # 1 p. 95 - 104

~%

文献:Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, , vol. 9, p. 465,468 Chemicke Listy, , vol. 33, p. 107

~%

文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 81, p. 512

~%

文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 12, p. 647

~%

详细
文献:Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, , vol. 11, # 6 p. 57,59 Chem.Abstr., , p. 7321

~%

文献:Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, , vol. 8, # 5 p. 125 Chem.Abstr., , p. 12682

~%

文献:Helvetica Chimica Acta, , vol. 19, p. 424,428

~%

文献:US2420689 , ;

~%

详细
文献:Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, , vol. 184, p. 450

~%

详细
文献:Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, , vol. 184, p. 450

~%

文献:Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), , vol. <2> 61, p. 322

~%

文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 81, p. 512

~0%

详细
文献:Helvetica Chimica Acta, , vol. 64, # 3 p. 801 - 812

~%

文献:Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, , vol. 116, p. 244 Doklady Chemistry, 112-117<1957>867

~%

文献:Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, , vol. 142, p. 554 Annales de Chimie (Cachan, France), , vol. <8> 10, p. 569

~%

文献:Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, , vol. 118, p. 964 Doklady Chemistry, 118-123 <1958> 163

~%

文献:Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, , vol. 128, p. 1188,1191 Pr. Akad. Sci. U.S.S.R. Chem. Sect., 124-129 <1959> 891, 893

~%

文献:Journal of Physical Chemistry, , vol. 63, p. 476,478

~%

文献:Journal of Physical Chemistry, , vol. 63, p. 476,478

~%

文献:Journal of Physical Chemistry, , vol. 63, p. 476,478

~%

文献:Journal of Physical Chemistry, , vol. 63, p. 476,478

~%

详细
文献:Chemische Berichte, , vol. 68, p. 98,100 Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Khimicheskaya, , p. 265 Chem.Abstr., , p. 4537

~%

文献:Journal of Physical Chemistry, , vol. 63, p. 476,478

~%

详细
文献:Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, , vol. 44, p. 2872,2875

~%

详细
文献:Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii, , vol. 16, p. 1823,1825 Chem.Abstr., , p. 5460

~%

详细
文献:Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, , vol. 109, p. 958,960 Doklady Chemistry, 106-111<1956>503

~%

详细
文献:Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii, , vol. 26, p. 2444,2450; engl. Ausg. S. 2733, 2738

~%

详细
文献:Kogyo Kagaku Zasshi, , vol. 59, p. 28 Chem.Abstr., , p. 10150

~%

详细
文献:Izv. Akad. S.S.S.R. Otd. tech.Chem.Abstr., p. 3 Izv. Akad. S.S.S.R. Otd. tech.Chem.Abstr., , p. 3903

~%

详细
文献:Mem.Fac.Eng.Kyushu Univ.Chem.Abstr., , vol. 18, p. 101,112 Mem.Fac.Eng.Kyushu Univ.Chem.Abstr., , p. 21724