磷酸

常用名 磷酸 英文名 phosphoric acid
CAS号 7664-38-2 分子量 97.995
密度 2.2±0.1 g/cm3 沸点 158.0±0.0 °C at 760 mmHg
分子式 H3O4P 熔点 ~40 °C(lit.)
MSDS磷酸的MSDS|SDS|pdf下载 中文版 美版 闪点 N/A
符号 GHS05
GHS05
信号词 Danger

 磷酸用途


1.磷酸在水处理领域主要用作软水剂、水垢清洗剂,以及用作磷系水处理剂的生产原料等。磷酸还有许多其他用途,高纯磷酸可用于制作无氟饲料;在电镀工业中用作抛光剂;印刷工业中用作去污剂。乙烯合成与过氧化氢的精制过程中用作酸化剂;饮料生产中用作酸化剂和调味剂;染料工业中用作干燥剂。纺织印染业中用作印染媒染剂,丝绸的光泽剂;日化工业中用作洗涤剂助剂,用于安全火柴的制造;制糖业中用作澄清剂;分析化学中用作分析试剂等。

2.医药工业用于制造甘油磷酸钠、磷酸铁、磷酸锌等,磷酸锌常作为牙科补牙用黏合剂。

3.在硅平面管和集成电路生产中,普遍以铝膜作电极引线,需要对铝膜进行光刻,用磷酸作酸性清洗腐蚀剂。可与乙酸配制使用。

4.湿法磷酸主要用于制造各种磷酸盐,如磷酸铵、磷酸二氢钾、磷酸氢二钠,磷酸三钠等和缩合磷酸盐类。精制磷酸用于制饲料用磷酸氢钙。用于金属表面磷化处理,配置电解抛光液和化学抛光液。医药工业用于制造甘油磷酸钠、磷酸铁等,也用于制造磷酸锌作为牙科补牙用黏合剂。用作酚醛树脂缩合的催化剂,染料及中间体生产用的干燥剂。印刷工业用于配制去胶印彩版上污点的清洗液。还用于配置火柴梗浸渍液。冶金工业用于生产磷酸耐火泥,提高炼钢炉寿命。磷酸盐能在水泥颗粒表面形成“不溶性”的磷酸钙作为缓凝剂。

5.用作分析试剂,如分解样品,作配合掩蔽剂、沉淀剂。还用于制金属防锈剂、电镀抛光剂、印刷去污剂、化工生产中的催化剂、干燥剂及软水剂。电子工业用橡胶浆凝固剂。

6.用于电子工业,用作酸性清洗腐蚀剂。

7.工业中用作凝结剂;纺织印染业中用作印染媒染剂,丝绸的光泽剂;金属表面处理中用作防锈剂;冶金工业中用于生产耐酸、耐火泥;可提高冶金炉的寿命;日化工业中用作洗涤剂助剂,用于安全火柴的制造;制糖业中用作澄清剂;分析化学中用作分析试剂;医学上用作牙科的胶黏剂以及在去除因烧伤坏死的疤痕时的修饰剂等。

8.用于制药、颜料、电镀、防锈等。

更多

 磷酸物理化学性质

[ 密度 ]: 2.2±0.1 g/cm3
[ 沸点 ]: 158.0±0.0 °C at 760 mmHg
[ 熔点 ]: ~40 °C(lit.)
[ 分子式 ]: H3O4P
[ 分子量 ]: 97.995
[ 精确质量 ]: 97.976898
[ PSA ]: 87.57000
[ LogP ]: -2.15
[ 外观性状 ]: 透明液体
[ 蒸汽密度 ]: 3.4 (vs air)
[ 蒸汽压 ]: 1.4±0.6 mmHg at 25°C
[ 折射率 ]: 1.510
[ 储存条件 ]:

储存注意事项 储存于阴凉、通风的库房。远离火种、热源。库温不超过30℃,相对湿度不超过80%。包装密封。应与易燃物、碱类、活性金属粉末分开存放,切忌混储。储区应备有合适的材料收容泄漏物。

[ 稳定性 ]:

1.具潮解性。其酸性较硫酸、盐酸和硝酸等强酸为弱,但较醋酸、硼酸等弱酸为强。经高温加热约200℃便失水成焦磷酸,超过300℃为偏磷酸。有腐蚀性。受热分解产生剧毒的氧化磷烟气。接触强腐蚀剂,放出大量热量,并发生溅射。

2.稳定性 稳定

3.禁配物 强碱、活性金属粉末、易燃或可燃物

4.避免接触的条件 受热、潮湿空气

5.聚合危害 不聚合

6.分解产物 氧化磷

[ 水溶解性 ]: MISCIBLE
[ 分子结构 ]:

1、摩尔折射率:13.52

2、摩尔体积(cm3/mol):45.2

3、等张比容(90.2K):154.4

4、表面张力(dyne/cm):136.3

5、极化率(10-24cm3):5.36

[ 计算化学 ]:

1、疏水参数计算参考值(XlogP):-2.1

2、氢键供体数量:3

3、氢键受体数量:4

4、可旋转化学键数量:0

5、互变异构体数量:无

6、拓扑分子极性表面积(TPSA):77.8

7、重原子数量:5

8、表面电荷:0

9、复杂度:49.8

10、同位素原子数量:0

11、确定原子立构中心数量:0

12、不确定原子立构中心数量:0

13、确定化学键立构中心数量:0

14、不确定化学键立构中心数量:0

15、共价键单元数量:1

[ 更多 ]:

1.性状:纯磷酸为无色结晶,无臭,具有酸味。

2.熔点(℃):42.4(纯品)

3.沸点(℃):260

4.相对密度(水=1):1.87(纯品)

5.相对蒸气密度(空气=1):3.38

6.饱和蒸气压(kPa):0.0038(20℃)

7.临界压力(MPa):5.07

8.辛醇/水分配系数:-0.77

9.溶解性:与水混溶,可混溶于乙醇等许过有机溶剂。

 磷酸MSDS

国标编号: 81501
CAS: 7664-38-2
中文名称: 正磷酸
英文名称: Phosphoric acid;Orthophosphoric acid
别 名: 磷酸
分子式: H3PO4
分子量: 98.00
熔 点: 42.4℃/纯品 沸点:2
密 度: 相对密度(水=1)1.87(?
蒸汽压: 25℃(纯)
溶解性: 与水混溶,可混溶于乙醇
稳定性: 稳定
外观与性状: 纯磷酸为无色结晶,无臭,具有酸味
危险标记: 20(酸性腐蚀品)
用 途: 用于制药、颜料、电镀、防锈

2.对环境的影响:
一、健康危害

侵入途径:吸入、食入、经皮吸收。
健康危害:蒸气或雾对眼、鼻、喉有刺激性。液体可致皮肤或眼灼伤。
慢性影响:鼻粘膜萎缩,鼻中隔穿孔。长期反复皮肤接触,可引起皮肤刺激。

二、毒理学资料及环境行为

毒性:属低毒类。
急性毒性:LD501530mg/kg(大鼠经口);2740mg/kg(兔经皮)
刺激性:兔经皮595mg/24小时,严重刺激;兔眼119mg严重刺激。

危险特性:有腐蚀性。受热分解产生剧毒的氧化磷烟气。
燃烧(分解)产物:氧化磷。


3.现场应急监测方法:
 


4.实验室监测方法:
空气中:样品用纤维素膜滤器收集,用水洗脱,再用比色法测定(NIOSH法)
分光光度法(NIOSH方法 216)
比色法(NIOSH方法 S333)
离子色谱(NIOSH方法 7903)


5.环境标准:
前苏联(1975)车间卫生标准 1mg/m3


6.应急处理处置方法:
一、泄漏应急处理

疏散泄漏污染区人员至安全区,禁止无关人员进入污染区,建议应急处理人员戴好防毒面具,穿化学防护服。不要直接接触泄漏物,用沙土、干燥石灰或苏打灰混合,然后收集转移到安全场所或以少量加入大量水中,调节至中性,再放入废水系统。如大量泄漏,收集回收或无害处理后废弃。
废弃物处置方法:建议把废料缓慢地加到碱液-石灰水中,搅拌后,用大量水冲入下水道。

二、防护措施

呼吸系统防护:空气中浓度超标时,必须佩带防毒面具或供气式头盔。紧急事态抢救或逃生时,建议佩带自给式呼吸器。
眼睛防护:戴化学安全防护眼镜。
防护服:穿工作服(防腐材料制作)。
手防护:戴橡皮手套。
其它:工作后,淋浴更衣。单独存放被毒物污染的衣服,洗后再用。保持良好的卫生习惯。

三、急救措施

皮肤接触:脱去污染的衣着,立即用流动清水彻底冲洗。若有灼伤,按酸灼伤处理。
眼睛接触:立即提起眼睑,用流动清水或生理盐水冲洗至少15分钟。就医。
吸入:脱离现场至空气新鲜处。必要时进行人工呼吸。就医。
食入:误服者立即漱口,给饮牛奶或蛋清。就医。

灭火方法:泡沫、二氧化碳、砂土、干粉。

 磷酸毒性和生态

磷酸毒理学数据:

1.急性毒性 LD50:1530mg/kg(大鼠经口);2740mg/kg(兔经皮)

2.刺激性

家兔经皮:595mg(24h),重度刺激。

家兔经眼:119mg,重度刺激。

3.亚急性与慢性毒性 动物长期吸入10.6mg/m3,使血清蛋白含量增加及肝糖原降低。

磷酸生态学数据:

1.生态毒性 TLm:138mg/L(96h)(食蚊鱼)

2.生物降解性 暂无资料

3.非生物降解性 暂无资料

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
TB6300000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Phosphoric acid
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
7664-38-2
LAST UPDATED :
199712
DATA ITEMS CITED :
40
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
H3-O4-P
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
98.00
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
H3 P-O4

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
REFERENCE :
BIOFX* BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. (1810 Frontage Rd., Northbrook, IL 60062) Volume(issue)/page/year: 17-4/1970
TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
REFERENCE :
BIOFX* BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. (1810 Frontage Rd., Northbrook, IL 60062) Volume(issue)/page/year: 17-4/1970 ** ACUTE TOXICITY DATA **
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Unreported
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human - man
DOSE/DURATION :
220 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970 Volume(issue)/page/year: 2,73,1970
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1530 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity) Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - hematuria Skin and Appendages - hair
REFERENCE :
BIOFX* BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. (1810 Frontage Rd., Northbrook, IL 60062) Volume(issue)/page/year: 17-4/1970
TYPE OF TEST :
LC50 - Lethal concentration, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
>850 mg/m3/1H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
BIOFX* BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. (1810 Frontage Rd., Northbrook, IL 60062) Volume(issue)/page/year: 17-4/1970
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
2740 mg/kg
REFERENCE :
BIOFX* BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. (1810 Frontage Rd., Northbrook, IL 60062) Volume(issue)/page/year: 17-4/1970 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIH TLV-STEL 3 mg/m3 DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 ACGIH TLV-TWA 1 mg/m3 DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974- Volume(issue)/page/year: 39,299,1978 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** EPA FIFRA 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936- Volume(issue)/page/year: 54,7740,1989 MSHA STANDARD-air:TWA 1 mg/m3 DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,210,1971 OSHA PEL (Gen Indu):8H TWA 1 mg/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1910.1000,1994 OSHA PEL (Construc):8H TWA 1 mg/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1926.55,1994 OSHA PEL (Shipyard):8H TWA 1 mg/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1915.1000,1993 OSHA PEL (Fed Cont):8H TWA 1 mg/m3 CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 41,50-204.50,1994 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-ARAB Republic of Egypt:TWA 1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-AUSTRALIA:TWA 1 mg/m3;STEL 3 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-BELGIUM:TWA 1 mg/m3;STEL 3 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-FINLAND:TWA 1 mg/m3;STEL 3 mg/m3;Skin JAN 1993 OEL-FRANCE:TWA 1 mg/m3;STEL 3 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-JAPAN:TWA 1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THE PHILIPPINES:TWA 1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWEDEN:TWA 1 mg/m3;STEL 3 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWITZERLAND:TWA 1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-THAILAND:TWA 1 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 1 mg/m3;STEL 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO PHOSPHORIC ACID-air:10H TWA 1 mg/m3;STEL 3 mg/m3 REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 58520 No. of Facilities: 42406 (estimated) No. of Industries: 257 No. of Occupations: 146 No. of Employees: 454920 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 58520 No. of Facilities: 61396 (estimated) No. of Industries: 309 No. of Occupations: 198 No. of Employees: 1256907 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 450478 (estimated)

 磷酸安全信息

[ 符号 ]: GHS05
GHS05
[ 信号词 ]: Danger
[ 危害声明 ]: H290-H314
[ 警示性声明 ]: P280-P303 + P361 + P353-P304 + P340 + P310-P305 + P351 + P338
[ 个人防护装备 ]: Faceshields;Gloves;Goggles
[ 危害码 (欧洲) ]: C:Corrosive
[ 风险声明 (欧洲) ]: R34
[ 安全声明 (欧洲) ]: S7-S16-S26-S36/37-S45-S36/37/39-S1/2-S24/25
[ 危险品运输编码 ]: UN 3453 8/PG 3
[ WGK德国 ]: 3
[ RTECS号 ]: TB6300000
[ 包装等级 ]: III
[ 危险类别 ]: 8
[ 海关编码 ]: 2809201900

 磷酸合成线路

~97%

文献:Blaser, B.; Matei, I. Ber., 1931 , vol. 64, p. 2286 - 2289

~71%

文献:Muller, George W.; Schafer, Peter H.; Man, Hon-Wah; Zhang, Ling-Hua; Gandhi, Anita; Chopra, Rajesh Patent: US2012/230983 A1, 2012 ;

~%

文献:Green, J. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 1950 , vol. 42, p. 1542 - 1546 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 103, page 229 - 234

~80%

文献:Vieboeck, F. Archiv der Pharmazie (Weinheim, Germany), 1934 , vol. 272, p. 88 - 100 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 3.4.1.6, page 282 - 285

~0%

文献:Bamann, E.; Nowotny, E. Ber., 1948 , vol. 81, p. 442 - 451 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 103, page 229 - 234

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 1.2.4, page 58 - 59 Full Text Show Details Gesellschaft fuer Linde's Eismaschinen A.-G. Patent: DE715678 , 1942 ; C. I, 1942 , p. 3062

~%

文献:Devonshire, L. N.; Rowley, H. H. Inorganic Chemistry, 1962 , vol. 1, p. 680 - 683

~%

文献:Prodan, E. A.; Shashkova, I. L. Kinetics and Catalysis, 1983 , vol. 24, p. 891 - 894 Kinetika i Kataliz, 1983 , vol. 24, p. 1051 - 1054

~%

文献:Sen, B. N. Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, 1938 , vol. 10, p. 321 - 329 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 52, page 109 - 112

~%

文献:Bushmakin, I. N.; Frost, A. V. Zhurnal prikladnoii Khim. (russ.), 1933 , vol. 6, p. 613 - 620

~11%

文献:Blaser, B.; Worms, K.-H. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1959 , vol. 300, p. 237 - 249

~%

文献:Sharma, Pradeep K Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section A Inorganic, Physical, Theoretical and Analytical Chemistry, 2002 , vol. 41, # 8 p. 1612 - 1615

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 1.1.4, page 19 - 21 Full Text Show Details Monsanto Chemical Co. Patent: US2670274 , 1954 ; C.A., 1954 , p. 7266 Full Text Show Details Indian Institute of Science Patent: IN43410 , 1952 ; C.A., 1952 , p. 8337 Full Text Show Details Societe des Produits Chimiques Coignet Patent: FR1214039 , 1959 ;

~%

文献:Hoffman, C. J.; Lutton, J. M.; Parry, R. W. Bailar, J. C., Inorganic syntheses, Bd. 4, New York-London 1953, S. 149/50

~%

文献:Vvedenskii, A. A.; Frost, A. V. Zhurnal obshchei Khim. (russ.), 1931 , vol. 1, p. 1108 - 1113

~%

详细
文献:Bushmakin, I. N.; Frost, A. V. Zhurnal prikladnoi Khim. (russ.), 1933 , vol. 6, p. 613 - 620

~%

文献:Bell, R. N.; Audrieth, L. F.; Hill, O. F. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 1952 , vol. 44, p. 568 - 572

~%

文献:Gupta, Bharati; Gupta, A. K.; Gupta, K. S.; Gupta, Y. K. Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section A: Inorganic, Physical, Theoretical & Analytical, 1985 , vol. 24, # 11 p. 927 - 931

~%

文献:Krause, A. Roczniki Chemii, 1962 , vol. 36, p. 973 - 975 C. A., 1963 , vol. 58, p. 964

~%

文献:Keeler, R. A.; Anderson, C. J.; Satriana, D. Analytical Chemistry, 1954 , vol. 26, p. 933 - 934

~%

文献:Blaser, B.; Worms, K. H. Zeitschrift fuer Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie, 1961 , vol. 312, p. 146 - 168

~%

文献:Tauchert, F. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1913 , vol. 79, p. 350 - 354

~%

文献:Thorpe, T. E. Chem. News J. Ind. Sci., 1875 , vol. 32, p. 232 - 232 Full Text Show Details Thorpe, T. E. Bl. Soc. chim. France (2), 1876 , vol. 25, p. 548 - 549 Full Text Show Details Thorpe, T. E. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1876 , vol. 182, p. 201 - 206 Full Text Show Details Thorpe, T. E. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 1876 , vol. 25, p. 122 - 123

~%

文献:Buehrer, T. F.; Schupp, O. E. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1927 , vol. 49, p. 9 - 15 Full Text View citing articles Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 3.5.2, page 319 - 321

~%

文献:Cornelius, Richard D. Inorganic Chemistry, 1980 , vol. 19, p. 1286 - 1290

~%

文献:Neale, E.; Williams, L. T. D. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1952 , p. 4535 - 4536

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 1.1.3, page 13 - 19 Full Text Show Details Seelye, F. T.; Rafter, T. A. Patent: GB672347 , 1952 ; C.A., 1952 , p. 9050

~%

文献:Rius, A.; Miro Anales de la Real Sociedad Espanola de Fisica y Quimica, 1920 , vol. 18, p. 35 - 43 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: O: MVol.7, 57, page 2311 - 2313

~%

文献:Blaser, B.; Worms, K.-H. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1959 , vol. 301, p. 7 - 17

~%

文献:Baudrimont, E. Ann. Chim. Phys., 1864 , vol. 2, p. 5 - 67 Full Text Show Details Chevrier Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1869 , vol. 68, p. 1174 - 1176

~%

文献:Cornelius, Richard D. Inorganic Chemistry, 1980 , vol. 19, p. 1286 - 1290

~%

文献:Schaetzel, B. Umsetzung von Phosphor mit Wasserdampf zu Phosphorsaeure und Wasserstoff im Temperaturgebiet von 200 - 1000° Celsius bei Atmosphaerendruck, Berlin 1929, S. 1/53

~%

文献:Bushmakin, I. N.; Vvedenskij, A. A.; Frost, A. V. Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii, 1932 , vol. 2, p. 415 - 420 C. I, 1933 , p. 2232 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 1.2.4, page 58 - 59

~%

文献:Bockemueller, W.; Goetz, T. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1934 , vol. 508, p. 263 - 297 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 51, page 105 - 108

~%

文献:Stokes, H. N. American Chemical Journal, 1896 , vol. 18, p. 629 - 663

~%

文献:Cornelius, Richard D. Inorganic Chemistry, 1980 , vol. 19, p. 1286 - 1290

~%

文献:Phillips, H. E. W. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1909 , vol. 95, p. 59 - 66 Full Text View citing articles Show Details Phillips, H. E. W. Proceedings of the Chemical Society, London, 1908 , vol. 24, p. 239 - 240

~%

详细
文献:Ipatieff, W. N.; Freitag, C. Zeitschrift fuer Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie, 1933 , vol. 215, p. 388 - 414 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 17, page 33 - 34

~%

文献:Brittingham, Kimberly A.; Espenson, James H. Inorganic Chemistry, 1999 , vol. 38, # 4 p. 744 - 750

~%

文献:Holt, A.; Myers, J. E. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1913 , vol. 82, p. 278 - 282

~%

文献:Raistrick, B. Scient. J. Roy. Coll. Sci., 1949 , vol. 19, p. 9 - 27 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 123, page 283 - 285

~%

文献:Balareff, D. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1914 , vol. 88, p. 133 - 150

~%

文献:Menschutkin, N. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1866 , vol. 139, p. 343 - 354

~%

文献:Moissan, H. Ann. Chim. Phys., 1885 , vol. 6, p. 468 - 475 Full Text Show Details Moissan, H. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1885 , vol. 100, p. 1348 - 1350 Full Text Show Details Moissan, H. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1884 , vol. 99, p. 655 - 657

~%

文献:Moureu, H.; Rocquet, P. Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, 1936 , vol. 3, p. 829 - 841 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 140, page 323 - 325

~%

文献:Lange, W. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges., 1929 , vol. 62, p. 786 - 792

~%

文献:Montignie, E. Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, 1941 , vol. 8, p. 198 - 202

~%

文献:Chevrier Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1868 , vol. 66, p. 748 - 752 Full Text Show Details Chevrier Z. Ch., 1868 , vol. 11, p. 538 - 539

~%

文献:Balard, A.-J. Ann. Chim. Phys., 1826 , vol. 32, p. 337 - 381 Full Text Show Details Loewig, C. Das Brom und seine chemischen Verhaeltnisse, Heidelberg 1829, 1/74

~%

文献:Vvedenskii, A. A.; Frost, A. V. Zhurnal obshchei Khim. (russ.), 1931 , vol. 1, p. 1108 - 1113

~%

文献:Abdelrazig, B. E. I.; Sharp, J. H. Thermochimica Acta, 1988 , vol. 129, p. 197 - 216

~%

文献:Grunze, H. Z. anorg. allg. Chem., 1961 , vol. 313, p. 323 - 337

~%

文献:Davy, H. Schweiggers J. Chem. Phys., 1811 , vol. 3, p. 79 - 120

~%

文献:Kolitowska, J. H. Roczniki Chemii, 1935 , vol. 15, p. 29 - 36 Full Text Show Details Kolitowska, J. H. Roczniki Chemii, 1937 , vol. 17, p. 616 - 619

~%

文献:Grunze, I.; Thilo, E.; Grunze, H. Chemische Berichte, 1960 , vol. 93, p. 2631 - 2638

~%

文献:Blaser, B.; Halpern, P. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1933 , vol. 215, p. 33 - 43

~%

文献:Balareff, D. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1914 , vol. 88, p. 133 - 150

~%

文献:Blaser, B.; Worms, K.-H. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1959 , vol. 300, p. 250 - 260

~%

文献:Blaser, B.; Worms, K.-H. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1959 , vol. 301, p. 7 - 17

~%

文献:Tauchert, F. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1913 , vol. 79, p. 350 - 354

~%

文献:Rupp, E.; Finck, A. Archiv der Pharmazie (Weinheim, Germany), 1902 , vol. 240, p. 663 - 675 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 52, page 109 - 112

~%

文献:Doht, R. Zeitschrift fuer Analytische Chemie, 1924 , vol. 64, p. 37 - 40

~%

文献:Postnikov, L. M. Vestnik. Moskovsk. Univ. (Ser. Fiz.-Mat. Estest. Nauk Nr. 3), 1950 , vol. 5, # 5 p. 63 - 67 C. A., 1951 , p. 4594 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 103, page 229 - 234

~0%

文献:Smith, E. F.; Meyer, F. L. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1895 , vol. 17, p. 737 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: Br: MVol., 6.3, page 208 - 213

~%

文献:Woehler, F. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1841 , vol. 39, p. 252 - 253

~0%

文献:Wagner, R. v. Dinglers Polytech. J., 1877 , vol. 225, p. 382 - 385

~2%

文献:Hovorka, V. Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, 1930 , vol. 2, p. 559 - 570 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 62, page 132 - 134

~%

文献:Nerz, K.; Wagner, C. Ber., 1937 , vol. 70, p. 446 - 449 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: O: MVol.7, 87, page 2374 - 2377

~%

文献:Moondra, Anu; Mathur, Abha; Banerji, Kalyan K. Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section A: Inorganic, Physical, Theoretical & Analytical, 1990 , vol. 29, # 10 p. 963 - 966

~%

文献:Kolitowska, J. H. Roczniki Chemii, 1953 , vol. 27, p. 191 - 206 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 183, page 421 - 424

~%

文献:Carrington, Sonya J.; Buckingham, David A.; Simpson, Jim; Blackman, Allan G.; Clark, Charles R. Journal of the Chemical Society - Dalton Transactions, 1999 , # 21 p. 3809 - 3816

~%

详细
文献:Kolitowska, J. H. Roczniki Chemii, 1935 , vol. 15, p. 29 - 36 Full Text Show Details Kolitowska, J. H. Roczniki Chemii, 1937 , vol. 17, p. 616 - 619

~%

文献:Blaser, B.; Worms, K.-H. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1959 , vol. 300, p. 250 - 260

~%

文献:Blaser, B.; Worms, K.-H. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1959 , vol. 300, p. 250 - 260

~%

文献:Thilo, E.; Wieker, W. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1954 , vol. 277, p. 27 - 36

~%

详细
文献:Blaser, B.; Worms, K.-H. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1959 , vol. 300, p. 237 - 249

~%

文献:Blaser, B.; Worms, K.-H. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1959 , vol. 300, p. 237 - 249

~%

文献:Pedler, A. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1890 , vol. 47, p. 599 - 613 Full Text View citing articles Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 3.4.1.5, page 276 - 281

~%

文献:Thorpe, T. E.; Rodger, J. W. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1888 , vol. 53, p. 766 - 767 Full Text View citing articles Show Details Thorpe, T. E.; Rodger, J. W. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1889 , vol. 55, p. 306 - 323 Full Text View citing articles Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 257, page 588 - 590

~%

文献:Baudrimont, E. Ann. Chim. Phys., 1864 , vol. 2, p. 5 - 67 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 221, page 508 - 509

~%

文献:Schoenbein, C. F. Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1846 , vol. 38, p. 81 - 91 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 3.5.4, page 323 - 329

~%

文献:Sementini, Schweiggers J. Chem. Phys., 1816 , vol. 17, p. 384 - 390 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 3.5.1, page 316 - 319

~%

文献:Poulenc, C. Ann. Chim. Phys., 1891 , vol. 24, p. 548 - 570 Full Text Show Details Poulenc, C. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1891 , vol. 113, p. 75 - 78 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 211, page 484 - 487

~%

文献:Besson, A.; Rosset, G. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1906 , vol. 143, p. 37 - 40

~%

文献:Watzel, R. Angew. Ch., 1942 , vol. 55, p. 356 - 359 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 107, page 241 - 243

~%

文献:Becke-Goehring, M.; Mann, T.; Euler, H. D. Chemische Berichte, 1961 , vol. 94, p. 193 - 198

~%

文献:Raetz, R.; Thilo, E. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1951 , vol. 572, p. 173 - 189 Full Text Show Details Thilo, E.; Woggon, H. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1954 , vol. 277, p. 17 - 26 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 128, page 294 - 297

~%

文献:Baudrimont, E. Ann. Chim. Phys., 1864 , vol. 2, p. 5 - 67

~%

文献:Norsk Hydro-Elektrisk Kvaelstofaktieselskab Patent: NO47380 , 1930 ; C. II, 1932 , p. 3286

~%

文献:Walker, O. J. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1926 , p. 1370 - 1381 Full Text View citing articles Show Details Gmelin Handbook: Ag: MVol.B5, 2.3.5.2, page 139 - 140

~%

文献:Wieland, H.; Franke, W. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1929 , vol. 475, p. 1 - 19 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: O: MVol.7, 57, page 2311 - 2313

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 204, page 467 - 469 Full Text Show Details Simon, A.; Schulze, G. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1939 , vol. 242, p. 313 - 368

~%

文献:Baudler, M. Zeitschrift fuer Naturforschung, 1959 , vol. 14 b, p. 464 - 465 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 65, page 138 - 140

~%

文献:Ficquellmont, A. M. de Annales de Chimie (Cachan, France), 1939 , vol. 12, p. 169 - 280 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 147, page 338 - 340

~%

详细
文献:Blaser, B.; Worms, K.-H. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1959 , vol. 300, p. 237 - 249

~%

详细
文献:Milobedzki, T.; Makulec, M. Roczniki Chemii, 1949 , vol. 23, p. 13 - 18

~%

详细
文献:Stokes, H. N. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1899 , vol. 19, p. 36 - 58 Full Text Show Details Stokes, H. N. American Chemical Journal, 1898 , vol. 20, p. 740 - 760 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 153, page 350 - 352

~%

文献:Tarible, J. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1893 , vol. 116, p. 1521 - 1524 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 269, page 618 - 620

~%

文献:Michaelis, A.; Pitsch, M. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1900 , vol. 310, p. 45 - 74 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 26, page 50 - 52

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 46, page 93 - 95 Full Text Show Details Paris, R.; Tardy, P. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1946 , vol. 223, p. 242 - 243

~%

详细
文献:Michaelis, A. Ber., 1872 , vol. 5, p. 411 - 417

~%

文献:McSorley, Fern R.; Wyatt, Peter B.; Martinez, Asuncion; Delong, Edward F.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Zechel, David L. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2012 , vol. 134, # 20 p. 8364 - 8367

~%

文献:Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology Patent: US7250509 B1, 2007 ; Location in patent: Page/Page column 5 ;

~%

文献:Asopa, Rachna; Mathur, Abha; Banerji, Kalyan K. Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section A: Inorganic, Bio-inorganic, Physical, Theoretical & Analytical Chemistry, 1991 , vol. 30, # 9 p. 784 - 788

~5%

文献:Rozenkranc, I. S. Zh. Khim. Prom - sti., 1938 , vol. 15, # 11 p. 30 - 33 C. II, 1939 , p. 1017 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 1.1.9, page 40 - 44

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 1.1.4, page 19 - 21 Full Text Show Details Monsanto Chemical Co. Patent: US2670274 , 1954 ; C.A., 1954 , p. 7266 Full Text Show Details Indian Institute of Science Patent: IN43410 , 1952 ; C.A., 1952 , p. 8337 Full Text Show Details Societe des Produits Chimiques Coignet Patent: FR1214039 , 1959 ;

~5%

文献:Rozenkranc, I. S. Zh. Khim. Prom - sti., 1938 , vol. 15, # 11 p. 30 - 33 C. II, 1939 , p. 1017 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 1.1.9, page 40 - 44

~%

文献:Rius, A. Anales de la Real Sociedad Espanola de Fisica y Quimica, 1920 , vol. 18, p. 35 - 43 Full Text Show Details Rius, A. Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1920 , vol. 3, p. 347 - 365

~%

详细
文献:Fialkov, Ya. F.; Kagan, F. E. Zh. obshchei Khim., 1954 , vol. 24, p. 3 - 10 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 53, page 112 - 113

~%

详细
文献:Kapoor, Surinder; Gupta, Yugul K. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions: Inorganic Chemistry (1972-1999), 1976 , p. 473 - 476

~%

详细
文献:Fialkov, Ya. F.; Kagan, F. E. Zh. obshchei Khim., 1954 , vol. 24, p. 3 - 10 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 53, page 112 - 113

~0%

文献:Remy, H.; Falius, H. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1960 , vol. 306, p. 211 - 215

~%

详细
文献:Knotz, F. Oesterr. Chem. - Ztg., 1949 , vol. 50, p. 128 - 129 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 258, page 590 - 592 Full Text Show Details Knotz, F. Patent: US2915361 , 1959 ; C. A., 1960 , p. 13579

~%

详细
文献:Thilo, E.; Wieker, W. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1954 , vol. 277, p. 27 - 36

~%

详细
文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 3.5.4, page 323 - 329 Full Text Show Details Tauchert, F. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1913 , vol. 79, p. 350 - 354

~%

文献:Fichter, F.; Gutzwiller, E. Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1928 , vol. 11, p. 323 - 337

~%

文献:Kagirov; Voloshin; Rizvanov, I. Kh.; Sinyashin; Yakhvarov Russian Chemical Bulletin, 2010 , vol. 59, # 6 p. 1116 - 1118

~%

文献:Baron; Brown Journal of the Chemical Society, 1955 , p. 2855,2857,2860

~%

详细
文献:Mishra, Dilip Kumar; Amala Dhas, T. Peter; Bhatnagar, Pankaj; Gupta, Y. K. Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section A: Inorganic, Physical, Theoretical & Analytical Chemistry, 1992 , vol. 31, p. 91 - 96

~%

文献:Husain, S.; Partington, J. R. Transactions of the Faraday Society, 1928 , vol. 24, p. 235 - 245 Full Text View citing articles Show Details Gmelin Handbook: O: MVol.7, 57, page 2311 - 2313

~%

文献:Saenger, A. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1886 , vol. 232, p. 1 - 41 Full Text Show Details Salzer, T. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1877 , vol. 187, p. 322 - 340

~%

详细
文献:Stokes, H. N. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1899 , vol. 19, p. 36 - 58 Full Text Show Details Stokes, H. N. American Chemical Journal, 1898 , vol. 20, p. 740 - 760

~%

详细
文献:Hovorka, V. Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, 1930 , vol. 2, p. 559 - 570 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 53, page 112 - 113

~%

详细
文献:Fialkov, Ya. F.; Kagan, F. E. Zh. obshchei Khim., 1954 , vol. 24, p. 3 - 10 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 53, page 112 - 113

~%

详细
文献:Michaelis, A. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1872 , vol. 164, p. 9 - 45 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 262, page 599 - 602

~%

文献:Fichter, F.; Rius y Miro, A. Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1919 , vol. 2, p. 3 - 26

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: O: MVol.4, 81, page 1161 - 1163

~%

文献:Dorfman, Ya. A.; Zakharov, V. I.; Kel'man, I. V.; Yukht, I. M.; Shindler, Yu. M.; Karinskaya, A. S. Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (Translation of Zhurnal Neorganicheskoi Khimii), 1991 , vol. 36, p. 1515 - 1518 Zhurnal Neorganicheskoi Khimii, 1991 , vol. 36, p. 2699 - 2703

~%

文献:Dalton, J. Philosophical Magazine (1798-1977), 1918 , vol. 11, p. 7 - 9 Full Text Show Details Lunge, G.; Cedercreutz, E. Angewandte Chemie, 1897 , vol. 10, p. 651 - 655 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 23, page 44 - 46

~%

文献:Kohl, W.; Klemenc, A. Monatshefte fuer Chemie, 1953 , vol. 84, p. 1053 - 1060 C. A., 1954 , p. 3818 Full Text View citing articles Show Details Klemenc, A.; Kohl, W. Monatshefte fuer Chemie, 1953 , vol. 84, p. 498 - 511

~%

文献:Persoz, J.; Bloch C. r. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 1849 , vol. 28, p. 389 - 389 Full Text Show Details Persoz, J.; Bloch C. r. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 1849 , vol. 28, p. 86 - 88 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 193, page 443 - 445

~%

文献:Milbauer, J. Chem. Obz., 1937 , vol. 12, p. 57 - 62 Full Text Show Details Milbauer, J. Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, 1937 , vol. 9, p. 393 - 405 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: S: MVol.B2, 4.4.4.3, page 768 - 771

~%

文献:Dalton, J. Philosophical Magazine (1798-1977), 1918 , vol. 11, p. 7 - 9 Full Text Show Details Lunge, G.; Cedercreutz, E. Angewandte Chemie, 1897 , vol. 10, p. 651 - 655 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 23, page 44 - 46

~%

文献:Berger, E. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1908 , vol. 146, p. 400 - 401 Full Text Show Details Charney, I.; Skinner, H. A. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1953 , p. 450 - 452 Full Text View citing articles Show Details Ogier, J. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1881 , vol. 92, p. 83 - 86 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 221, page 508 - 509

~%

文献:Stokes, H. N. American Chemical Journal, 1896 , vol. 18, p. 629 - 663

~%

文献:Blaser, B.; Worms, K.-H. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1959 , vol. 301, p. 18 - 35

~%

文献:Raetz, R.; Thilo, E. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1951 , vol. 572, p. 173 - 189

~%

文献:Friedheim, C. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1894 , vol. 6, p. 293

~%

文献:Carius, L. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1858 , vol. 106, p. 291 - 336

~%

文献:Casselmann, W. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1856 , vol. 98, p. 220

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 126, page 289 - 292 Full Text Show Details Glatzel, A. Diss. Wuerzburg 1880, S. 1/113

~%

文献:Bell, R. N. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 1948 , vol. 40, p. 1464 - 1467

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: O: MVol.4, 75, page 1149 - 1151

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 204, page 467 - 469 Full Text Show Details Hudson, R. F. Proc. XIth int. Congr. pure appl. Chem., London 1947, S. 297/305

~%

详细
文献:Gustavson, G. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. - Petersbourg, 1867 , vol. 11, p. 299 - 301 Full Text Show Details Gustavson, G. J. prf. Ch., 1867 , vol. 101, p. 123 - 125

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 46, page 93 - 95 Full Text Show Details Cavazzi, A. Gazzetta Chimica Italiana, 1886 , vol. 16, p. 169 - 171

~%

文献:Bushmakin, I. N.; Frost, A. V. Zhurnal prikladnoii Khim. (russ.), 1933 , vol. 6, p. 613 - 620

~%

文献:Sieverts, A. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1909 , vol. 64, p. 29 - 64

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 1.1.4, page 19 - 21 Full Text Show Details Washburn, F. S. Patent: US1149233 , 1915 ; C.A., 1915 , p. 2698

~%

文献:Rose, H. Annalen der Physik (Weinheim, Germany), 1832 , vol. 24, p. 109 - 165 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: S: MVol.B2, 4.4.4.3, page 768 - 771

~0%

详细
文献:Sellers, P. A.; Sata, T. R.; Strain, H. H. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 1958 , vol. 5, p. 31 - 47

~%

文献:Salzer, T. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1877 , vol. 187, p. 322 - 340

~%

文献:Besson, A. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1896 , vol. 122, p. 1057 - 1060

~%

文献:Bricke, E. V.; Pestov, N. E.; Postnikov, N. N. Miner. Syr'e Tsvetn. Met., 1929 , vol. 4, p. 375 - 378 C.A., 1930 , p. 208 Full Text Show Details Bricke, E. V.; Pestov, N. E. Trudy NIUIFa, 1929 , # 59 p. 5 - 160 C.A., 1930 , p. 208 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 1.2.3, page 54 - 58

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 3.4.1.5, page 276 - 281

~%

文献:Ditte, A. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1870 , vol. 70, p. 621 - 625 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 3.4.1.5, page 276 - 281

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 3.4.1.5, page 276 - 281 Full Text Show Details Bengieser Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1836 , vol. 17, p. 254 - 260

~%

文献:Lange, W.; Askitopoulos, K. Ber., 1938 , vol. 71, p. 801 - 807 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 257, page 588 - 590

~%

文献:Moser, L.; Brukl, A. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1922 , vol. 121, p. 76 - 76

~%

文献:Fluck, E.; Hoesle, R.; Zischka, A.-K. Zeitschrift fuer Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie, 1981 , vol. 474, p. 105 - 112

~%

文献:Fluck, E.; Hoesle, R.; Zischka, A.-K. Zeitschrift fuer Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie, 1981 , vol. 474, p. 105 - 112

~%

文献:Lecher et al. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1954 , vol. 76, p. 1045,1047, 1051 Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1956 , vol. 78, p. 5018,5022

~%

详细
文献:Gustavson, G. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. - Petersbourg, 1867 , vol. 11, p. 299 - 301 Full Text Show Details Gustavson, G. J. prf. Ch., 1867 , vol. 101, p. 123 - 125

~%

文献:Ogier, J. Ann. Chim. Phys., 1880 , vol. 20, p. 10 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: Br: MVol., 3.2, page 115 - 119

~%

文献:Prodan; Shashkova; Galkova Kinetics and Catalysis, 1984 , vol. 25, # 6 pt 1 p. 1136 - 1139

~%

详细
文献:Yokoyama, M. Nippon Kagaku Kaishi (1921 - 47), 1960 , vol. 81, p. 161 - 166

~%

详细
文献:Voznesenskii, S. A.; Dubnikov, L. M. Zh. obshch. Khim., 1941 , vol. 11, p. 507 - 517 C. II, 1941 , p. 1721

~%

文献:Davy, H. Ann. Chim. Phys., 1816 , vol. 1, p. 76 - 82 Full Text Show Details Davy, H. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1815 , vol. 105, p. 214 - 219 Full Text Show Details Davy, H. Schweiggers J. Chem. Phys., 1811 , vol. 3, p. 256 - 267 Full Text Show Details Millon, Ann. Chim. Phys., 1843 , vol. 7, p. 298 - 339 Full Text Show Details Millon, Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1843 , vol. 46, p. 281 - 319 Full Text Show Details Stadion, F. v. Annalen der Physik (Weinheim, Germany), 1816 , vol. 52, p. 197 - 224 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 3.4.2.1, page 306 - 307

~%

文献:Baudler, M.; Dobbers, J.; Schoener, Ch. P.; Borgardt, M.; Rackwitz, D.; Krause, U. M. Zeitschrift fuer Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie, 1995 , vol. 621, p. 1459 - 1465

~%

详细
文献:Chevrier Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1869 , vol. 68, p. 1174 - 1176

~%

详细
文献:Baudrimont, E. Ann. Chim. Phys., 1864 , vol. 2, p. 5 - 67

~%

文献:Kraut, K. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1871 , vol. 158, p. 332 - 334 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 215, page 494 - 496

~%

详细
文献:Moser, L.; Brukl, A. Z. Anorg. Chem., 1922 , vol. 121, p. 76 - 76

~%

文献:Winter, H.; Ruiter, B. de; Grampel, J. C. van de Phosphorus and Sulfur and the Related Elements, 1983 , vol. 18, p. 422 - 422

~%

文献:Cornelius, Richard D. Inorganic Chemistry, 1980 , vol. 19, p. 1286 - 1290

~%

文献:Rudolph, Wolfram W. Dalton Transactions, 2010 , vol. 39, # 40 p. 9642 - 9653

~%

文献:Gupta; Inani; Sharma Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 1991 , vol. 68, # 9 p. 487 - 490

~%

文献:Shechkov; Pevneva; Meshkova Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2003 , vol. 76, # 8 p. 1354 - 1355

~%

详细
文献:Watanabe, Makoto; Van Wazer, John R. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 1982 , vol. 55, p. 2902 - 2905

~%

文献:Zhu, Tian; Chang, Hou-Min; Kadla, John F. Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 2003 , vol. 81, # 2 p. 156 - 160

~%

文献:Keswani, Pushpa; Gupta, Y. K. Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section A: Inorganic, Physical, Theoretical & Analytical, 1983 , vol. 22, # 9 p. 763 - 766

~%

文献:Panigrahi, G. P.; Nayak, R. N. Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section A: Inorganic, Physical, Theoretical & Analytical, 1983 , vol. 22, # 3 p. 239 - 240

~%

详细
文献:Fialkov, Ya. F.; Kagan, F. E. Zh. obshchei Khim., 1954 , vol. 24, p. 3 - 10 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 53, page 112 - 113

~%

详细
文献:Weyl, T. Ber., 1906 , vol. 39, p. 1307 - 1314 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 3.4.1.5, page 276 - 281

~%

详细
文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 183, page 421 - 424 Full Text Show Details Neale, E.; Williams, L. T. D. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1954 , p. 2156 - 2158

~%

详细
文献:Cavazzi, A. Gazzetta Chimica Italiana, 1886 , vol. 16, p. 169 - 171

~%

详细
文献:Baudler, M. Zeitschrift fuer Naturforschung, 1959 , vol. 14 b, p. 464 - 465 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 65, page 138 - 140

~%

详细
文献:Vijai; Mala; Khandelwal; Sharma Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section A Inorganic, Physical, Theoretical and Analytical Chemistry, 2008 , vol. 47, # 6 p. 859 - 862

~%

详细
文献:Michaelis, A. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1872 , vol. 164, p. 9 - 45 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 262, page 599 - 602

~%

文献:Milobedzki; Kolitowska Roczniki Chemii, vol. 6, p. 82,83, 87 Chem. Zentralbl., 1926 , vol. 97, # II p. 2898

~%

文献:Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 1.2.4, page 58 - 59 Full Text Show Details Auger, V.; Urbain, E. Patent: FR733684 , 1932 ; C. I, 1934 , p. 428

~%

文献:Reichard; Ringertz Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1959 , vol. 81, p. 878,879, 883

~%

文献:Posternak C. r. Soc. Phys. Geneve, 1926 , vol. 43, p. 17 Full Text Show Details Jost Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fuer Physiologische Chemie, 1927 , vol. 165, p. 175,177 Full Text Show Details Greenwald Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1925 , vol. 63, p. 341,344

~%

文献:Lippert; Reid Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1938 , vol. 60, p. 2370

~%

文献:Ripper; Greenslade; Lickerish Nature (London, United Kingdom), 1949 , vol. 163, p. 788

~%

文献:Cherbuliez; Rabinowitz Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1956 , vol. 39, p. 1844,1849

~%

文献:Baron; Brown Journal of the Chemical Society, 1955 , p. 2855,2857,2860

~%

文献:Milobedzki; Kolitowska Roczniki Chemii, vol. 6, p. 70,77 Chem. Zentralbl., 1926 , vol. 97, # II p. 2898

~%

文献:Michelson; Todd Journal of the Chemical Society, 1949 , p. 2476,2484

~%

文献:Baron; Brown Journal of the Chemical Society, 1955 , p. 2855,2857,2860

~%

文献:Baron; Brown Journal of the Chemical Society, 1955 , p. 2855,2857,2860

~%

文献:Dimroth et al. Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1959 , vol. 620, p. 94,100,108

~%

文献:Foster et al. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1951 , p. 980,985

~%

文献:Bourneuf Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, 1923 , vol. <4>33, p. 1809

~%

文献:Nijk Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas, 1922 , vol. 41, p. 471

~%

文献:Meyerhof; Lohmann Naturwissenschaften, vol. 16, p. 47 Chem. Zentralbl., 1928 , vol. 99, # I p. 1674 Full Text View citing articles Show Details Meyerhof; Lohmann Biochemische Zeitschrift, 1928 , vol. 196, p. 24 Chem. Zentralbl., 1928 , vol. 99, # I p. 1674

~%

文献:Gilpin American Chemical Journal, 1897 , vol. 19, p. 357 American Chemical Journal, 1902 , vol. 27, p. 444

~%

详细
文献:Michaelis; Kaersten Chemische Berichte, 1895 , vol. 28, p. 1242

~%

详细
文献:Titherley; Worrall Journal of the Chemical Society, 1909 , vol. 95, p. 1151,1153

~%

详细
文献:Michaelis; Kaersten Chemische Berichte, 1895 , vol. 28, p. 1242

~%

详细
文献:Neumann Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas, 1948 , vol. 67, p. 101,104

~%

详细
文献:Neumann Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas, 1948 , vol. 67, p. 101,104

~%

文献:Anschuetz; Broeker Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1927 , vol. <2> 115, p. 380,382 Full Text Show Details Knauer Chemische Berichte, 1894 , vol. 27, p. 2566

~%

文献:Menschutkin Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, 1865 , vol. <2>3, p. 269 Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1865 , vol. 136, p. 254

~%

文献:Nijk Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas, 1922 , vol. 41, p. 471

~%

文献:Weller Chemische Berichte, 1887 , vol. 20, p. 1720,1721

~%

文献:Weller Chemische Berichte, 1887 , vol. 20, p. 1720,1721

~%

文献:Hurtzig; Geuther Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1859 , vol. 111, p. 171

~%

文献:Thorpe; North Journal of the Chemical Society, 1890 , vol. 57, p. 634

~%

文献:Michaelis; Oster Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1892 , vol. 270, p. 136

~%

文献:Brigl; Mueller Chemische Berichte, 1939 , vol. 72, p. 2121,2127

~%

文献:Michaelis; Mottek Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1903 , vol. 326, p. 161

~%

文献:Kiessling Chemische Berichte, 1934 , vol. 67, p. 870,872

~%

文献:Leimu; Ronkainen Acta Chemica Scandinavica (1947-1973), 1954 , vol. 8, p. 591,594

~%

文献:Huebner; Wehrhane Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1863 , vol. 128, p. 254 Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1864 , vol. 132, p. 279

~%

文献:Miquel Annales de Chimie (Cachan, France), 1877 , vol. <5> 11, p. 349

~%

文献:Steinkopf Chemische Berichte, 1908 , vol. 41, p. 3585 Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1910 , vol. <2>81, p. 241

~%

文献:Kunz Chemische Berichte, 1894 , vol. 27, p. 2563

~%

文献:Lynen Chemische Berichte, 1940 , vol. 73, p. 367,368, 373

~%

文献:Nylen Chemische Berichte, 1924 , vol. 57, p. 1030 Chemische Berichte, 1926 , vol. 59, p. 1120

~%

文献:Neuberg Biochemische Zeitschrift, 1918 , vol. 88, p. 432

~%

文献:Titherley; Worrall Journal of the Chemical Society, 1909 , vol. 95, p. 1151,1153

~%

文献:Michaelis; Linke Chemische Berichte, 1907 , vol. 40, p. 3420

~%

文献:Michaelis; Linke Chemische Berichte, 1907 , vol. 40, p. 3420

~%

文献:Kekule Chemische Berichte, 1873 , vol. 6, p. 944

~%

文献:Kunz Chemische Berichte, 1894 , vol. 27, p. 2563

~%

文献:Michaelis; Kerkhof Chemische Berichte, 1898 , vol. 31, p. 2178

~%

文献:Michaelis; Kerkhof Chemische Berichte, 1898 , vol. 31, p. 2178

~%

文献:Michaelis; Silberstein Chemische Berichte, 1896 , vol. 29, p. 721 Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1903 , vol. 326, p. 247

~%

文献:Anschuetz; Moore Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1887 , vol. 239, p. 321

~%

文献:Dupuis Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1910 , vol. 150, p. 622

~%

详细
文献:Couper Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1858 , vol. 46, p. 1109 Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1859 , vol. 109, p. 372 Full Text Show Details Anschuetz,R. Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1885 , vol. 228, p. 317 Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1906 , vol. 346, p. 293

~%

文献:v.Baeyer,H.; Hofmann,K.A. Chemische Berichte, 1897 , vol. 30, p. 1975

~%

详细
文献:Nijk Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas, 1922 , vol. 41, p. 471

~%

详细
文献:Autenrieth; Boelli Chemische Berichte, 1925 , vol. 58, p. 2150

~%

详细
文献:Autenrieth; Boelli Chemische Berichte, 1925 , vol. 58, p. 2150

~%

详细
文献:Dixon Journal of the Chemical Society, 1904 , vol. 85, p. 358

~%

详细
文献:Noack Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1883 , vol. 218, p. 96

~%

详细
文献:Noack Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1883 , vol. 218, p. 96

~%

详细
文献:Michaelis; Linke Chemische Berichte, 1907 , vol. 40, p. 3420

~%

详细
文献:Dupuis Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1910 , vol. 150, p. 622

~%

详细
文献:Autenrieth; Boelli Chemische Berichte, 1925 , vol. 58, p. 2150

~%

详细
文献:Knauer Chemische Berichte, 1894 , vol. 27, p. 2566

~%

详细
文献:Knauer Chemische Berichte, 1894 , vol. 27, p. 2566

~%

详细
文献:Michaelis Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1896 , vol. 293, p. 292

~%

详细
文献:Titherley; Worrall Journal of the Chemical Society, 1909 , vol. 95, p. 1151,1153

~%

详细
文献:Otto Chemische Berichte, 1895 , vol. 28, p. 616

~%

详细
文献:Michaelis; Silberstein Chemische Berichte, 1896 , vol. 29, p. 721 Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1903 , vol. 326, p. 247

~%

详细
文献:Dupuis Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1910 , vol. 150, p. 622

~%

详细
文献:Knauer Chemische Berichte, 1894 , vol. 27, p. 2566

~%

文献:Treadwell, W. D.; Beeli, C. Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1935 , vol. 18, p. 1161 - 1171 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 251, page 573 - 576

~%

文献:Besson, A. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1896 , vol. 122, p. 814 - 817 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.C, 225, page 516 - 517

~%

文献:Meyerhof; Lohmann Biochemische Zeitschrift, 1934 , vol. 271, p. 99,108 Biochemische Zeitschrift, 1934 , vol. 273, p. 413

~%

文献:Conant; MacDonald; Kinney Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1921 , vol. 43, p. 1934

~%

详细
文献:Doht, R. Zeitschrift fuer Analytische Chemie, 1924 , vol. 64, p. 37 - 40

~%

文献:Heumann, K.; Koechlin, P. Ber., 1882 , vol. 15, p. 416 - 420 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 3.4.2.2, page 307 - 310

~%

文献:Ginsburg, V. A.; Martynova, L. L.; Lebedeva, M. F.; Dubov, S. S.; Medvedev, A. N.; Tetel'baum, B. I. Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii, 1967 , vol. 37, p. 1016 - 1019 Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii, 1967 , vol. 37, p. 1073 - 1077 C.A., 1968 , vol. 68, p. 12367 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: F: PerFHalOrg.9, 8, page 125 - 158

~%

详细
文献:Albaum; Umbreit Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1947 , vol. 167, p. 369,370 Full Text Show Details Lohmann Biochemische Zeitschrift, 1931 , vol. 233, p. 460,461 Full Text Show Details Bartlett et al. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1959 , vol. 234, p. 449,452

~%

文献:Nakazawa; Matsuura Yakugaku Zasshi, 1954 , vol. 74, p. 69 Chem.Abstr., 1955 , p. 1631

~%

文献:Nakazawa; Matsuura Yakugaku Zasshi, 1954 , vol. 74, p. 69 Chem.Abstr., 1955 , p. 1631

~%

文献:Lippert; Reid Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1938 , vol. 60, p. 2370

~%

文献:Lippert; Reid Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1938 , vol. 60, p. 2370

~%

文献:Lippert; Reid Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1938 , vol. 60, p. 2370

~%

文献:Lippert; Reid Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1938 , vol. 60, p. 2370

~%

文献:Robinson; Morgan Biochemical Journal, 1928 , vol. 22, p. 1277,1279, 1280 Biochemical Journal, 1930 , vol. 24, p. 119,120, 131

~%

文献:Longenecker; Snell Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1957 , vol. 225, p. 409,411, 415

~%

文献:Longenecker; Snell Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1957 , vol. 225, p. 409,411, 415

~%

文献:Anderson Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1915 , vol. 20, p. 480,495 Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1914 , vol. 18, p. 441

~%

文献:Anderson Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1915 , vol. 20, p. 480,495 Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1914 , vol. 18, p. 441

~%

详细
文献:Berthaud, J. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1906 , vol. 143, p. 1166 - 1167 Full Text Show Details Gmelin Handbook: P: MVol.B, 3.6.1, page 329 - 331

~%

详细
文献:Longenecker; Snell Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1957 , vol. 225, p. 409,411, 415

~%

详细
文献:Bartlett et al. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1959 , vol. 234, p. 449,452

~%

文献:Winterstein Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fuer Physiologische Chemie, 1908 , vol. 58, p. 119 Full Text Show Details Contardi Atti della Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali, Rendiconti, 1909 , vol. <5> 18 I, p. 66

~%

文献:Gulland; Walsh Journal of the Chemical Society, 1945 , p. 169,171

~%

文献:Kielley et al. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1956 , vol. 219, p. 95,98 Full Text Show Details Kalckar Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1944 , vol. 153, p. 355,363

~%

文献:Cherbuliez; Rabinowitz Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1956 , vol. 39, p. 1455,1456 Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1958 , vol. 41, p. 1168,1171

~%

文献:Foster et al. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1951 , p. 980,985

~%

文献:Cherbuliez; Leber Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1952 , vol. 35, p. 644,660

~%

文献:Ginodman Biokhimiya (Moscow), 1954 , vol. 19, p. 666,670 Chem.Abstr., 1955 , p. 6698

~%

文献:Courtois; Barre Bulletin de la Societe de Chimie Biologique, 1946 , vol. 28, p. 854 Chem.Abstr., 1947 , p. 4451

~%

详细
文献:Fossek Monatshefte fuer Chemie, 1886 , vol. 7, p. 34

~%

文献:Michaelis; Linke Chemische Berichte, 1907 , vol. 40, p. 3420

~%

文献:Michaelis; Linke Chemische Berichte, 1907 , vol. 40, p. 3420

~%

文献:Anschuetz,R.; Moore Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1887 , vol. 239, p. 336,341

~%

文献:Bischoff Chemische Berichte, 1900 , vol. 33, p. 1605

~%

文献:Anschuetz,R.; Moore Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1887 , vol. 239, p. 343

~%

文献:Nijk Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas, 1922 , vol. 41, p. 471

~%

文献:Nijk Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas, 1922 , vol. 41, p. 471

~%

详细
文献:Michaelis Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1876 , vol. 181, p. 322 Chemische Berichte, 1873 , vol. 6, p. 819

~%

文献:Young Biochemische Zeitschrift, 1911 , vol. 32, p. 179 Full Text Show Details Neuberg; Faerber; Levite; Schwenk Biochemische Zeitschrift, 1917 , vol. 83, p. 261 Anm.

~%

文献:Lohmann; Meyerhof Biochemische Zeitschrift, 1934 , vol. 273, p. 62

~%

文献:Harding Chem. Zentralbl., 1912 , vol. 83, # II p. 1293 Full Text Show Details Harden; Young Chem. Zentralbl., 1910 , vol. 81, # II p. 1075

~%

文献:Lohmann; Meyerhof Biochemische Zeitschrift, 1934 , vol. 273, p. 62 Full Text Show Details Kiessling Chemische Berichte, 1935 , vol. 68, p. 599 Chemische Berichte, 1936 , vol. 69, p. 2331

~%

文献:Hofmann,A.W. Chemische Berichte, 1872 , vol. 5, p. 105 Full Text Show Details Letts; Blake Journal of the Chemical Society, 1890 , vol. 58, p. 767 Chemische Berichte, 24 Ref. <1891>,365 Full Text Show Details Letts; Blake Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 35,540

~%

文献:Weller Chemische Berichte, 1887 , vol. 20, p. 1720,1721

~%

文献:Michaelis Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1897 , vol. 294, p. 15

~%

文献:Michaelis; Luxembourg Chemische Berichte, 1895 , vol. 28, p. 2207

~%

文献:Anschuetz; Broeker Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1927 , vol. <2> 115, p. 380,382 Full Text Show Details Knauer Chemische Berichte, 1894 , vol. 27, p. 2566

~%

文献:Carius Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1859 , vol. 112, p. 196

~%

文献:Noack Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1883 , vol. 218, p. 96

~%

文献:Lohmann; Meyerhof Biochemische Zeitschrift, 1934 , vol. 273, p. 62

~%

文献:Page Journal of the Chemical Society, 1912 , vol. 101, p. 430

~%

文献:Kiessling Chemische Berichte, 1935 , vol. 68, p. 599 Chemische Berichte, 1936 , vol. 69, p. 2331

~%

文献:Neuberg; Schuchardt Enzymol., 1936 , vol. 1, p. 41 Chem. Zentralbl., 1937 , vol. 108, # I p. 2792

~%

文献:Nylen Chemische Berichte, 1924 , vol. 57, p. 1030 Chemische Berichte, 1926 , vol. 59, p. 1120

~%

文献:Marie Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, 1903 , vol. 136, p. 48 Annales de Chimie (Cachan, France), 1904 , vol. <8>3, p. 407

~%

文献:Nylen Chemische Berichte, 1924 , vol. 57, p. 1030 Chemische Berichte, 1926 , vol. 59, p. 1120

~%

文献:Anschuetz Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1927 , vol. 454, p. 107

~%

文献:Michaelis; Schulze Chemische Berichte, 1894 , vol. 27, p. 2573 Full Text Show Details Autenrieth; Rudolph Chemische Berichte, 1900 , vol. 33, p. 2110

~%

文献:Michaelis; Paneck Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1882 , vol. 212, p. 203

~%

文献:Boehringer and Soehne Patent: DE98522 ;

~%

文献:Baddiley et al. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1949 , p. 815,819

~%

文献:Anschuetz; Broeker Chemische Berichte, 1928 , vol. 61, p. 1265

~%

文献:Weller Chemische Berichte, 1887 , vol. 20, p. 1720,1721

~%

文献:Michaelis; Benzinger Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1877 , vol. 188, p. 282

~%

文献:Michaelis; Paneck Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1882 , vol. 212, p. 203

~%

文献:Letts; Blake Journal of the Chemical Society, 1890 , vol. 58, p. 767 Chemische Berichte, 24 Ref. <1891>,365 Full Text Show Details Letts; Blake Transactions of the Royal Soc. of Edinbrugh 35,558

~%

文献:Goetter; Michaelis Chemische Berichte, 1878 , vol. 11, p. 885

~%

文献:Raikow; Schtarbanow Chemiker-Zeitung, Chemische Apparatur, 1901 , vol. 25, p. 280

~%

文献:Michaelis; Linke Chemische Berichte, 1907 , vol. 40, p. 3420

~%

详细
文献:Rabe Chemische Berichte, 1889 , vol. 22, p. 394

~%

详细
文献:Michaelis; Schenk Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1890 , vol. 260, p. 6 Chemische Berichte, 1888 , vol. 21, p. 1501

 磷酸制备

1.工业生产方法有湿法和热法。前者制得磷酸浓度较低,而且含杂质较多,需要进行净化。如以酮-醇混合物为萃取体系精制湿法磷酸,经萃取-洗涤-反萃取和钡盐沉淀净化的工艺流程,已生产出合格的85%工业磷酸。后者制得磷酸浓度和纯度都高,但耗电量大、投资和成本较高。
湿法是用酸分解磷矿石制得。此法分为硫酸法、盐酸法、硝酸法和硫酸氢铵法。常用为硫酸法。硫酸法由于反应温度和制得磷酸浓度不同,在磷酸水溶液中硫酸钙晶体有三种不同形式,按其生产工艺分为“二水物”流程、“半水物”流程、“无水物”流程,近年还出现“半水-二水物”流程和“二水-半水物”流程等。

2.湿法(硫酸法)二水物流程将磷矿石粉碎至80~100目后,加入萃取槽,再加人淡磷酸和返酸以维持料浆的液固比为(2.5~3.5):1(重量比),并调节磷酸浓度。把硫酸按理论量的102%~104%加入萃取槽,与磷矿粉于75~85℃进行萃取反应4~8h。反应后的料浆经过滤,滤液即为磷酸,浓度一般在20%~25%P2O5,其中一部分返回萃取槽调节液固比,另一部分送去蒸发浓缩,制得磷酸成品。其
7664-38-2 preparation
滤渣经多次洗涤后排出,其磷石膏用于制造硫酸的原料,洗液返回萃取槽用。
热法热法磷酸的生产有酸冷流程、水冷流程和喷射除雾流程,现分述如下:
酸冷流程将黄磷在熔磷槽内熔化成液体,经磷喷嘴送人燃烧水合塔,同时用压缩空气(一次空气)将磷雾化,使磷氧化燃烧生成五氧化二磷。为了使磷氧化完全,在塔顶还需补充二次空气。在塔顶沿塔壁淋洒30~40℃的循环磷酸,使五氧化二磷气体冷却,同时与水合成磷酸。排出的气体进入电除雾器以回收磷酸,再经冷却至30~40℃后,大部分作循环磷酸返回燃烧水合塔,小部分作磷酸成品。其
7664-38-2 preparation
水冷流程将黄磷熔化后,用泵把液态磷送人燃烧室,同时用压缩空气使磷雾化,并补充二次空气,使磷在燃烧室内进行氧化。产生气体温度为800℃左右,在室外用水冷却,使壁温保持80~125℃。从燃烧室出来的气体进入石墨制的气体冷却器,气体经冷却至80℃时进入水合塔,在塔中分三层喷水冷却,并水合成磷酸成品。尾气冷却至100℃以下,经电除雾器排入大气。
喷射除雾流程将液态黄磷经磷喷嘴送入燃烧水合塔,同时用压缩空气使磷雾化,燃烧生成的五氧化二磷立即与水形成磷酸酸雾。将酸雾经热交换器冷却后被喷射除雾器吸人,酸雾在喷射器喉部碰撞,凝集成大颗粒后在旋风分离器内回收,配制成85%H3PO4,制得磷酸成品。

3.制法 以热法还原所生产的工业磷酸为原料,加热至80℃左右,然后通入硫化氢气体达到饱和,密闭静置,使硫化砷和硫化铅沉淀完全,过滤。加热滤液不超过150℃,蒸发,以除去硫化氢和氯化氢气体,浓缩至相对密度等于1.90为止。如需进一步提高质量,可先用上述磷酸用水稀释至相对密度为1.06以下,过滤、蒸发、浓缩至相对密度为1.70(20℃) ,冷却,得到的是松散的含水试剂磷酸。

4.① 黄磷气化后导入空气或过热水蒸气使其氧化,生成五氧化磷,用水吸收,经除砷而得。② 用硝酸使磷氧化而得。③ 磷酸三钙 ( 骨灰)与稀硫酸共热,经分解后,滤出滤液,再浓缩而得。

 磷酸海关

[ 海关编码 ]: 2809201900

 磷酸文献533

更多文献
Metagenome-wide association of microbial determinants of host phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster.

MBio 5(5) , e01631-14, (2014)

Animal-associated bacteria (microbiota) affect host behaviors and physiological traits. To identify bacterial genetic determinants of microbiota-responsive host traits, we employed a metagenome-wide a...

Investigations on the transfer of porphyrin from o/w emulsion droplets to liposomes with two different methods.

Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 41(1) , 156-62, (2014)

Due to their small particle size, colloidal fat emulsions are suitable for intravenous administration. In order to obtain information on their potential in vivo performance, it is important to find a ...

Process development for scum to biodiesel conversion.

Bioresour. Technol. 185 , 185-93, (2015)

A novel process was developed for converting scum, a waste material from wastewater treatment facilities, to biodiesel. Scum is an oily waste that was skimmed from the surface of primary and secondary...