二甲基甲酰胺

常用名 二甲基甲酰胺 英文名 N,N-Dimethylformamide
CAS号 68-12-2 分子量 73.09380
密度 0.948 g/mL at 20 °C 沸点 153 °C(lit.)
分子式 C3H7NO 熔点 -61 °C
MSDS二甲基甲酰胺的MSDS|SDS|pdf下载 中文版 美版 闪点 136 °F
符号 GHS02 GHS07 GHS08
GHS02, GHS07, GHS08
信号词 Danger

 二甲基甲酰胺用途


1.二甲基甲酰胺对多种高聚物如聚乙烯、聚氯乙烯、聚丙烯腈、聚酰胺等均为良好的溶剂,可用于聚丙烯腈纤维等合成纤维的湿纺丝、聚氨酯的合成;用于塑料制膜;也可作去除油漆的脱漆剂;它还能溶解某些低溶解度的颜料,使颜料带有染料的特点。二甲基甲酰胺用于芳烃抽提以及用于从碳四馏分中分离回收丁二烯和从碳五馏分中分离回收异戊二烯,还可用作从石蜡中分离非烃成分的有效试剂。

2.它对间苯二甲酸和对苯二甲酸的溶解性有良好的选择性:间苯二甲酸在二甲基甲酰胺中的溶解度大于对苯二甲酸,在二甲酸甲酰胺中进行溶剂萃取或部分结晶,可将两者分离。在石油化学工业中,二甲基甲酰胺可作为气体吸收剂,用来分离和精制气体。

3.在有机反应中,二甲基甲酰胺不但广泛用作反应的溶剂,也是有机合成的重要中间体。农药工业中可用来生产杀虫脒。

4.非水溶液滴定用试剂,乙烯树脂和乙炔的溶剂,有机合成,光度测定,气相色谱固定液(最高使用温度50℃,溶剂为甲醇),分离分析C2-C5烃,并能分离正、异丁烯]及顺、反丁烯。农药残留量分析。有机合成。肽的合成。照相工业用。

5.一种用途极广的优良溶剂及化工原料。对多种聚合物如聚乙烯、聚氯乙烯、聚丙烯腈、聚酰胺等均为优良溶剂。可用于聚丙烯腈纤维等合成纤维的湿法纺丝;聚氨酯的合成;除油漆的脱漆剂;乙炔的选择性吸收和丁二烯的分离精制;人造革的生产中用作溶剂;在农药上用来合成杀虫剂;医药工业中可用于合成碘胺嘧啶、强力霉素、可的松、维生素B6、碘苷、驱蛲净、噻嘧啶、N-甲酰溶肉瘤素、抗瘤氨酸、甲氧芳芥、卞氮芥、环己亚硝脲、呋氟脲嘧啶、止血环酸、倍分美松、甲地孕酮、胆维他、扑尔敏等等。

6.用作液相色谱中的溶剂和有机改性剂,薄层色谱分析用萃取剂和展开剂,乙烯树脂和乙炔的溶剂,以及非水溶剂滴定的溶剂。并用于有机合成。

7.主要用作工业溶剂,医药工业上用于生产、激素,也用于制造杀虫脒。

更多

 二甲基甲酰胺名称

[ 中文名 ]: N,N-二甲基甲酰胺
[ 英文名 ]: N,N-dimethylformamide
[中文别名 ]: 二甲基甲酰胺
DMF
[英文别名 ]: N,N-dimethyl-malonamic acid ethyl ester
N,N-DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE
N,N-dimethyl-formamide
Dimethylformamide
MFCD00003284
dimetylformamide
DIMETHYL FORMAMIDE
EINECS 200-679-5
ethyl a-dimethylcarbamoylacetate
Dimethylcarbamoylessigsaeure-ethylester
ethyl N,N-dimethylamidomalonate
N,N-Dimethylformamid

 二甲基甲酰胺物理化学性质

[ 密度 ]: 0.948 g/mL at 20 °C
[ 沸点 ]: 153 °C(lit.)
[ 熔点 ]: -61 °C
[ 分子式 ]: C3H7NO
[ 分子量 ]: 73.09380
[ 闪点 ]: 136 °F
[ 精确质量 ]: 73.05280
[ PSA ]: 20.31000
[ LogP ]: 0.34030
[ 外观性状 ]: 透明无色液体
[ 蒸汽密度 ]: 2.5 (vs air)
[ 折射率 ]: n20/D 1.430(lit.)
[ 储存条件 ]:

储存注意事项 储存于阴凉、通风的库房。库温不宜超过37℃。远离火种、热源。保持容器密封。应与氧化剂、还原剂、卤素等分开存放,切忌混储。采用防爆型照明、通风设施。禁止使用易产生火花的机械设备和工具。储区应备有泄漏应急处理设备和合适的收容材料。

[ 稳定性 ]:

1.为非质子型极性溶剂,对多种有机化合物和无机化合物均有良好的溶解能力,在无碱、酸、水存在下,具有良好的化学稳定性。

2.化学性质:在无酸、碱、水存在下,即使加热到沸点也是比较稳定的。在酸的作用下分解成甲酸和二甲胺盐,而在碱的作用下则分解成甲酸盐和二甲胺。

3.受紫外线作用分解成二甲胺与甲醛,加热到350℃左右分解成二甲胺与一氧化碳。与盐酸形成比较稳定的等摩尔的加合物,其熔点为40℃,沸点为110℃。与SO3也能形成结晶性加合物,其熔点为138℃,沸点为145℃,DMF-SO3可作为缓和的磺化剂和硫酸化剂使用。与POCl3、COCl2、SOCl2等形成的加合物可在电子密度高的芳香环上引入CHO基(Vilsmeier反应)。P2O5在室温下不溶于N,N-二甲基甲酰胺,但在40℃以上形成稳定的络合物后,在室温即能溶解,而不发生沉淀。在金属钠存在下加热时发生激烈反应并放出氢气。与三乙基铝在0℃也能发生激烈反应。也能与Grignard试剂反应。与酰氯及酸酐发生反应时生成二甲酰胺的衍生物。

4.属低毒类。动物试验证明,连续投给大量的N,N-二甲基甲酰胺时,引起体重减轻,并阻碍造血机能。对眼、皮肤、黏膜有强烈的刺激作用,其液体或蒸气被皮肤吸收后还能引起肝脏障碍。吸入高浓度的蒸气能引起急性中毒,主要症状为严重刺激、全身痉挛、疼痛性便秘和恶心、呕吐等。慢性中毒除有皮肤、黏膜刺激外,尚有恶心、呕吐、胸闷、头痛、全身不适、食欲减少、胃痛、便秘、肝大和肝功能变化、尿胆素原和尿胆素亦可增加。使用时要求平均蒸气浓度在29.9mg/m3以下,59.8mg/m3时即出现中毒症状(伤害中枢神经)。大鼠和小鼠的经口毒性LD50为3000~7000mg/kg。嗅觉阈浓度0.14mg/m3,TJ 36-79规定车间空气中最高容许浓度为10mg/m3。

5.稳定性 稳定

6.禁配物 强氧化剂、酰基氯、氯仿、强还原剂、卤素、氯代烃、浓硫酸、发烟硝酸

7.聚合危害 不聚合

[ 水溶解性 ]: soluble
[ 分子结构 ]:

1、摩尔折射率:19.85

2、摩尔体积(cm3/mol):82.6

3、等张比容(90.2K):186

4、表面张力(dyne/cm):25.7

5、介电常数(F/m):36.7

6、偶极距(D):3.86(1D=3.33×10-30C·m)

7、极化率(10-24cm3):7.87

[ 计算化学 ]:

1、疏水参数计算参考值(XlogP):-1

2、氢键供体数量:0

3、氢键受体数量:1

4、可旋转化学键数量:0

5、拓扑分子极性表面积(TPSA):20.3

6、重原子数量:5

7、表面电荷:0

8、复杂度:33.9

9、同位素原子数量:0

10、确定原子立构中心数量:0

11、不确定原子立构中心数量:0

12、确定化学键立构中心数量:0

13、不确定化学键立构中心数量:0

14、共价键单元数量:1

[ 更多 ]:

1.性状:无色透明或淡黄色液体,有鱼腥味。

2.熔点(℃):-61

3.沸点(℃):153

4.相对密度(水=1):0.95

5.相对蒸气密度(空气=1):2.51

6.饱和蒸气压(kPa):0.5(25℃)

7.燃烧热(kJ/mol):-1921

8.临界温度(℃):374

9.临界压力(MPa):4.48

10.辛醇/水分配系数:-0.87

11.闪点(℃):58(OC)

12.引燃温度(℃):445

13.爆炸上限(%):15.2

14.爆炸下限(%):2.2

15.溶解性:与水混溶,可混溶于多数有机溶剂。

16.折射率(25ºC):1.42817

17.黏度(mPa·s,25ºC):0.802

18.比旋光度(º):0.94

19.燃点(ºC):445

20.蒸发热(KJ/mol,25ºC):47.545

21.蒸发热(KJ/mol,100ºC):43.585

22.蒸发热(KJ/mol,b.p.):38.368

23.熔化热(KJ/mol):16.165

24.燃烧热(KJ/mol):1915.46

25.比热容(KJ/(kg·K),25ºC,定压):2.14

26.电导率(S/m):6×10-8

27.热导率(W/(m·K),20ºC):0.16579

 二甲基甲酰胺MSDS

国标编号: 33627
CAS: 68-12-2
中文名称: N,N-二甲基甲酰胺
英文名称: N,N-dimethylformamide;DMF
别 名: 甲酰二甲胺
分子式: C3H7NO;(CH3)2NCH(O)
分子量: 73.10
熔 点: -61℃ 沸点:152.8℃
密 度: 相对密度(水=1)0.94;
蒸汽压: 58℃
溶解性: 与水混溶,可混溶于多数有机溶剂
稳定性: 稳定
外观与性状: 无色液体,有微弱的特殊臭味
危险标记: 7(易燃液体)
用 途: 主要用作工业溶剂,医药工业上用于生产维生素、激素,也用于制造杀虫脒

2.对环境的影响:
一、健康危害
侵入途径:吸入、食入、经皮吸收。
健康危害:急性中毒:主要有眼和上呼吸道刺激症状、头痛、焦虑、恶心、呕吐、腹痛、便秘等。肝损害一般在中毒数日后出现,肝脏肿大,肝区痛,可出现黄疸。经皮肤吸收中毒者,皮肤出现水泡、水肿、粘糙,局部麻木、瘙痒、灼痛。
慢性影响:有皮肤、粘膜刺激,神经衰弱综合征,血压偏低。尚有恶心、呕吐、胸闷、食欲不振、胃痛、便秘及肝功能变化。
二、毒理学资料及环境行为

毒性:低毒类。
急性毒性:LD 50400mg/kg(大鼠经口);4720mg/kg(兔经皮);LC 509400mg/m 3,2小时(小鼠吸入);人吸入30~60ppm,消化道症状,肝功可异常,有黄疸,尿胆原增加,蛋白尿;人吸入10~20ppm(有时30ppm),头痛,食欲不振,恶心,肝功和心电图正常。
亚急性和慢性毒性:大鼠吸入2500mg/m 3,6小时/天,5天,80%死亡,肝肺有病变;人吸入5.1~49mg/m 3×3年,神衰症候群,血压偏低,肝功能变化。
危险特性:易燃,遇高热、明火或与氧化剂接触,有引起燃烧爆炸的危险。能与浓硫酸、发烟硝酸猛烈反应,甚至发生爆炸。与卤化物(如四氯化碳)能发生剧烈反应。
燃烧(分解)产物:一氧化碳、二氧化碳、氧化氮。

3.现场应急监测方法:


气体检测管法
气体速测管(德国德尔格公司产品)

4.实验室监测方法:


气相色谱法《作业环境空气中有毒物质检测方法》陈安之主编
色谱/质谱法《水和有害废物的监测分析方法》周文敏等编译

5.环境标准:

中国(TJ36-70) 车间空气中有害物质的最高容许浓度 10mg/m3[皮]
前苏联(1975) 居民区大气中有害物最大允许浓度 0.03mg/m3(最大值、昼夜均值)
前苏联(1975) 水体中有害物质最高允许浓度 10mg/L
  嗅觉阈浓度 0.14mg/m3

6.应急处理处置方法:
一、泄漏应急处理
迅速撤离泄漏污染区人员至安全区,并进行隔离,严格限制出入。切断火源。建议应急处理人员戴自给正压式呼吸器,穿消防防护服。尽可能切断泄漏源。防止进入下水道、排洪沟等限制性空间。小量泄漏:用砂土或其它不燃材料吸附或吸收。也可以用大量水冲洗,洗水稀释后放入废水系统。大量泄漏:构筑围堤或挖坑收容;用泡沫覆盖,降低蒸气灾害。用防爆泵转移至槽车或专用收集器内,回收或运至废物处理场所处置。
废弃物处置方法:用焚烧法。废料溶于易燃溶剂后,再焚烧。焚烧炉排出的气体要通过碱洗涤器除去有害成分,从纤维沉降槽和聚氯乙烯反应器的洁净溶剂中回收N,N-二甲基甲酰胺。
二、防护措施
呼吸系统防护:空气中浓度超标时,佩戴过滤式防毒面具(半面罩)。
眼睛防护:戴化学安全防护眼镜。
身体防护:穿化学防护服。
手防护:戴橡胶手套。
其它:工作现场严禁吸烟。工作毕,淋浴更衣。
三、急救措施
皮肤接触:脱去被污染的衣着,用大量流动清水冲洗,至少15分钟。就医。
眼睛接触:立即提起眼睑,用大量流动清水或生理盐水彻底冲洗至少15分钟。就医。
吸入:迅速脱离现场至空气新鲜处。保持呼吸道通畅。如呼吸困难,给输氧。如呼吸停止,立即进行人工呼吸。就医。
食入:饮足量温水,催吐,就医。
灭火方法:灭火剂:雾状水、抗溶性泡沫、干粉、二氧化碳、砂土。尽可能将容器从火场移至空旷处。喷水保持火场容器冷却,直至灭火结束。

 二甲基甲酰胺毒性和生态

二甲基甲酰胺毒理学数据:

1.急性毒性

LD50:4000mg/kg(大鼠经口);4720mg/kg(兔经皮)

LC50:9400mg/m3(小鼠吸入,2h)

2.刺激性 家兔经眼:100%,重度刺激(用水冲洗)

3.亚急性与慢性毒性 大鼠吸入2500mg/m3,每天6h,共5d,16只中有8~10只死亡,尸解可见肝脏和肺脏损伤。

二甲基甲酰胺生态学数据:

1.生态毒性

LC50:1430mg/L(96h)(黑头呆鱼);10000~13000mg/L(96h)(虹鳟鱼)

2.生物降解性 暂无资料

3.非生物降解性 空气中,当羟基自由基浓度为5.00×105个/cm3时,降解半衰期为22h(理论)。

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
LQ2100000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Formamide, N,N-dimethyl-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
68-12-2
LAST UPDATED :
199806
DATA ITEMS CITED :
102
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C3-H7-N-O
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
73.11
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
VHN1&1

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Human
TYPE OF TEST :
Rinsed with water
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration into the eye
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
2800 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LCLo - Lowest published lethal concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
5000 ppm/6H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD - Lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
>3160 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1400 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity) Behavioral - muscle weakness Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
3800 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
2 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Unreported
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
>3 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
3700 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity) Behavioral - excitement Behavioral - muscle contraction or spasticity
TYPE OF TEST :
LC50 - Lethal concentration, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
9400 mg/m3/2H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - convulsions or effect on seizure threshold Behavioral - muscle weakness Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - dyspnea
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
650 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Subcutaneous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
4500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
2500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intramuscular
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
3900 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - dog
DOSE/DURATION :
470 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - cat
DOSE/DURATION :
500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - other changes Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - other changes in urine composition Blood - changes in cell count (unspecified)
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
5 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
4720 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
1 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - other changes Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - other changes in urine composition Blood - changes in cell count (unspecified)
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
1800 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
4 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - fatty liver degeneration
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
1050 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
13 gm/kg/15W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - food intake (animal) Liver - changes in liver weight Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
5400 mg/kg/90D-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight Blood - changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count Blood - changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
400 ppm/6H/13W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight Blood - changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - transaminases
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
300 mg/m3/4H/26W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - recordings from specific areas of CNS Behavioral - altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
500 ug/m3/24H/60D-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - other changes in urine composition Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - true cholinesterase Biochemical - Metabolism (Intermediary) - porphyrin including bile pigments
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
2523 ppm/6H/5D-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
800 ppm/6H/13W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Liver - changes in liver weight Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - changes in bladder weight Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
18 gm/kg/2W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
5030 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-15 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - extra-embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
800 ppm/6H
SEX/DURATION :
female 13 week(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Maternal Effects - other effects Endocrine - effect on menstrual cycle
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
50 ppm/6H
SEX/DURATION :
male 13 week(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Paternal Effects - spermatogenesis (incl. genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
4 mg/m3/4H
SEX/DURATION :
female 1-19 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - pre-implantation mortality (e.g. reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetal death
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
600 mg/m3/24H
SEX/DURATION :
female 1-19 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - behavioral
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
287 ppm/6H
SEX/DURATION :
female 0-19 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - extra-embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
300 ppm/6H
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-15 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
DOSE :
3600 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 11-13 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetal death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
DOSE :
7552 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-15 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - other effects to embryo
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
DOSE :
20 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-15 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - pre-implantation mortality (e.g. reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
DOSE :
20 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 1-20 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - female fertility index (e.g. # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated) Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - delayed effects
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
1820 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-15 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
200 ppm/6H
SEX/DURATION :
female 13 week(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Maternal Effects - other effects Endocrine - effect on menstrual cycle
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
2100 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 11 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
DOSE :
15120 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 1-14 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - craniofacial (including nose and tongue) Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - other developmental abnormalities
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
2600 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-18 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - Central Nervous System Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - body wall Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
2600 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-18 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
DOSE :
450 ppm/6H
SEX/DURATION :
female 7-19 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - body wall Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
DOSE :
5200 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-18 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - other effects to embryo
TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis
TYPE OF TEST :
Dominant lethal test
TYPE OF TEST :
Micronucleus test
TYPE OF TEST :
Cytogenetic analysis

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Host-mediated assay
TEST SYSTEM :
Rodent - mouse Bacteria - Salmonella typhimurium
REFERENCE :
CHPUA4 Chemicky Prumysl. Chemical Industry. (SNTL-Statni Nakladatelstvi Technicke Literatury, Spalena 51, 113 02 Prague 1, Czechoslovakia) V.1- 1951- Volume(issue)/page/year: 31,548,1981 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIH TLV-Not classifiable as a human carcinogen DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 ACGIH TLV-TWA 30 mg/m3 (10 ppm) (skin) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 IARC Cancer Review:Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 47,171,1989 IARC Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 47,171,1989 IARC Cancer Review:Group 2B IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 47,171,1989 TOXICOLOGY REVIEW CMTVAS Cahiers de Medecine du Travail. (Association Professionnelle Belge des Medecine du Travail, rue du Bultia, 6280 Gerpinnes, Belgium) V.1- 1963- Volume(issue)/page/year: 10(3),49,1973 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** MSHA STANDARD-air:TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,90,1971 OSHA PEL (Gen Indu):8H TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1910.1000,1994 OSHA PEL (Construc):8H TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1926.55,1994 OSHA PEL (Shipyard):8H TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1915.1000,1993 OSHA PEL (Fed Cont):8H TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 41,50-204.50,1994 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-AUSTRALIA:TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 OEL-BELGIUM:TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 OEL-FINLAND:TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);STEL 20 ppm (60 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 OEL-FRANCE:TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 OEL-GERMANY:TWA 20 ppm (60 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 OEL-HUNGARY:TWA 10 mg/m3;STEL 20 mg/m3;Skin JAN 1993 OEL-JAPAN:TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 OEL-THE PHILIPPINES:TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 OEL-POLAND:TWA 10 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-RUSSIA:TWA 10 ppm;STEL 10 mg/m3;Skin JAN 1993 OEL-SWEDEN:TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);STEL 15 ppm (45 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 OEL-SWITZERLAND:TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);STEL 20 ppm;Skin JAN 1993 OEL-TURKEY:TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);Skin JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);STEL 20 ppm;Skin JAN 1993 OEL IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE-air:10H TWA 10 ppm (Sk) REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 26560 No. of Facilities: 3115 (estimated) No. of Industries: 64 No. of Occupations: 71 No. of Employees: 69191 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 26560 No. of Facilities: 6209 (estimated) No. of Industries: 85 No. of Occupations: 93 No. of Employees: 124683 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 16011 (estimated)

 二甲基甲酰胺安全信息

[ 符号 ]: GHS02 GHS07 GHS08
GHS02, GHS07, GHS08
[ 信号词 ]: Danger
[ 危害声明 ]: H226-H312 + H332-H319-H360D
[ 警示性声明 ]: P201-P280-P305 + P351 + P338-P308 + P313
[ 个人防护装备 ]: Eyeshields;Faceshields;full-face respirator (US);Gloves;multi-purpose combination respirator cartridge (US);type ABEK (EN14387) respirator filter
[ 危害码 (欧洲) ]: T:Toxic
[ 风险声明 (欧洲) ]: R20/21;R36;R61
[ 安全声明 (欧洲) ]: S53-S45
[ 危险品运输编码 ]: UN 2265 3/PG 3
[ WGK德国 ]: 1
[ RTECS号 ]: LQ2100000
[ 包装等级 ]: III
[ 危险类别 ]: 3
[ 海关编码 ]: 2924191000

 二甲基甲酰胺合成线路

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 二甲基甲酰胺制备

自从1899年用甲酸与二甲胺反应首次合成二甲基甲酰胺以后,发展了以不同原料合成二甲基甲酰胺的工艺方法,如二甲胺-一氧化碳法、甲酰胺-二甲胺法、氰氢酸-甲醇法、乙腈-甲醇法、甲酸甲酯-二甲胺法、三氯乙醛-二甲胺法等等。但目前国外的工业化生产仍以二甲胺-一氧化碳法为主。

1、甲酸甲酯-二甲胺法:由甲酸与甲醇酯化生成甲酸甲酯,然后与二甲胺气相反应生成二甲基甲酰胺,再经蒸馏回收甲醇和未反应的甲酸甲酯后进行减压精馏制得成品。

68-12-2 preparation

2、二甲胺-一氧化碳法:由二甲胺与一氧化碳在甲醇钠作用下,直接反应而得。反应条件是1.5-2.5MPa和110-150℃。粗品经精馏制得成品。

68-12-2 preparation

3、由一氧化碳和甲醇在高压和80-100℃温度下经羰基合成得甲酸甲酯,然后再与二甲胺反应生成二甲基甲酰胺,精馏后得到成品。

68-12-2 preparation

4、三氯乙醛法:由三氯乙醛与二甲胺反应而得。

将氯仿与0.52份的三氯乙醛加入反应釜,冷却至30℃以下,通入气态的二甲胺,同时将其佘0.78份的三氯乙醛滴入反应釜,进行反应。反应结束后进行蒸馏操作,当精馏塔塔顶温度为58-64℃时的馏分为氯仿,64-150℃的馏分为氯仿与二甲基甲酰胺的混合物,将此混合液进行减压蒸馏得粗品二甲基甲酰胺,然后将粗晶再进行精馏,即得成品。

68-12-2 preparation 消耗定额(kg/t):二甲胺(40%)2372;三氯乙醛(95%)2543。

精制方法:N,N-二甲基甲酰胺常含有水、乙醇、伯胺、仲胺等杂质,并能与2分子水形成HCON(CH3)2·2H2O。要得到高纯度产品,可使用干燥剂与蒸馏并用的方法。首先加入1/10体积的苯,常压下进行共沸蒸馏以除去水。再按下列方法精制:

① 加入无水硫酸镁(25g/L)干燥,减压下2~2.67KPa蒸馏。

② 加入粉状氧化钡,搅动后倾出液体,减压蒸馏。

③ 加入氧化铝粉末(50g/L,500~600℃烧成),混合摇动,减压下(0.67~1.33KPa)蒸馏。

④ 加入三苯基氯硅烷(5~10g/L),120~140℃加热24小时后减压(0.67KPa)蒸馏。

由以上方法所得产品电导率:(1) (0.9~1.5)×10 -7 S/m;(2) (0.4~1.0)×10 -7 S/m;(3) (0.3~0.9)×10 -7 S/m;(4) (0.2~0.5)×10 -7 S/m。

5.以工业品二甲基甲酰胺为原料,经提纯而得试剂二甲基甲酰胺。工业品中若含有少量水,可以通过4A分子筛除去。若水分含量较高,可加适量颗粒氢氧化钾,不进摇动并充分静置分层,分去含有甲酸等杂质的水层后,加入二甲基甲酰胺体积1/5的试剂级苯进行常压精馏,当气相温度达130℃时,在残液中加入适量五氧化二磷,加盖振荡3.5h,静置后滤去固体,然后在充氮条件下用氢氧化钾脱水,再在干燥氮气保护下减压精馏,收集中间馏分,即得高纯度产品。

6.二甲胺与二氧化碳在甲醇钠催化下加压合成或二甲胺与甲酸甲酯气相反应制得,也可由二甲胺与三氯乙醛反应而得。

 二甲基甲酰胺海关

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 二甲基甲酰胺文献820

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