环己烷

常用名 环己烷 英文名 cyclohexane
CAS号 110-82-7 分子量 84.160
密度 0.8±0.1 g/cm3 沸点 80.7±0.0 °C at 760 mmHg
分子式 C6H12 熔点 6.5ºC
MSDS环己烷的MSDS|SDS|pdf下载 中文版 美版 闪点 -18.3±0.0 °C
符号 GHS02 GHS07 GHS08 GHS09
GHS02, GHS07, GHS08, GHS09
信号词 Danger

 环己烷用途


1.本品用作橡胶、涂料、清漆的溶剂,胶粘剂的稀释剂、油脂萃取剂。因本品的毒性小,故常代替苯用于脱油脂、脱润滑脂和脱漆。本品主要用于制造尼龙的单体己二酸、己二胺和己内酰胺,也用作制造环己醇、环己酮的原料。

2.络合滴定铜、铁、硅、铝、钙、镁等。色谱分析标准物。

3.环己烷为清洗去油剂,MOS级主要用于分立器件,中、大规模集成电路,BV-Ⅲ级主要用于超大规模集成电路。

4.用作分析试剂,如作溶剂,色谱分析标准物质。

5.溶解力性能近似于己烷、苯,但毒性比苯小,可作其代用品,但价格高,在工业洗涤剂中又作脱油脂剂、涂料涂层剥离剂等

6.用作漆和树脂的溶剂,油漆和清漆的去除剂。

7.用作一般溶剂、色谱分析标准物质及用于有机合成。

更多

 环己烷物理化学性质

[ 密度 ]: 0.8±0.1 g/cm3
[ 沸点 ]: 80.7±0.0 °C at 760 mmHg
[ 熔点 ]: 6.5ºC
[ 分子式 ]: C6H12
[ 分子量 ]: 84.160
[ 闪点 ]: -18.3±0.0 °C
[ 精确质量 ]: 84.093903
[ LogP ]: 3.39
[ 外观性状 ]: 无色液体
[ 蒸汽压 ]: 93.7±0.1 mmHg at 25°C
[ 折射率 ]: 1.433
[ 储存条件 ]:

储存注意事项储存于阴凉、通风的库房。远离火种、热源。库温不宜超过29℃。保持容器密封。应与氧化剂分开存放,切忌混储。采用防爆型照明、通风设施。禁止使用易产生火花的机械设备和工具。储区应备有泄漏应急处理设备和合适的收容材料。

[ 稳定性 ]:

1.本品有中等毒性,对中枢神经系统有抑制作用,高浓度环己烷有麻醉作用,会影响造血功能及消化系统功能。对小鼠的LC50约为200000×10-6,空气中最高容许浓度为1015mg/m3。环己烷蒸气和空气形成爆炸性混合物。生产设备要密封,防止物料泄漏。失火时用干粉灭火(用水灭火无效)。操作人员配戴好防护用具。

2.稳定性 稳定

3.禁配物 强氧化剂、强酸、强碱、卤素

4.聚合危害 不聚合

[ 分子结构 ]:

1、摩尔折射率:27.67

2、摩尔体积(cm3/mol):106.4

3、等张比容(90.2K):240.2

4、表面张力(dyne/cm):25.9

5、介电常数(F/m):2.10

6、极化率(10-24cm3):10.96

[ 计算化学 ]:

1.疏水参数计算参考值(XlogP):无

2.氢键供体数量:0

3.氢键受体数量:0

4.可旋转化学键数量:0

5.互变异构体数量:无

6.拓扑分子极性表面积0

7.重原子数量:6

8.表面电荷:0

9.复杂度:15.5

10.同位素原子数量:0

11.确定原子立构中心数量:0

12.不确定原子立构中心数量:0

13.确定化学键立构中心数量:0

14.不确定化学键立构中心数量:0

15.共价键单元数量:1

[ 更多 ]:

1.性状:无色液体,有刺激性气味。

2.熔点(℃):6.47

3.沸点(℃):80.7

4.相对密度(水=1):0.78

5.相对蒸气密度(空气=1):2.90

6.饱和蒸气压(kPa):12.7(20℃)

7.燃烧热(kJ/mol):-3919.6

8.临界温度(℃):280.4

9.临界压力(MPa):4.05

10.辛醇/水分配系数:3.44

11.闪点(℃):-18(CC)

12.引燃温度(℃):245

13.爆炸上限(%):8.4

14.爆炸下限(%):1.3

15.溶解性:不溶于水,溶于乙醇、乙醚、苯、丙酮等多数有机溶剂。

16.偏心因子:0.212

17.Lennard-Jones参数(A):7.696

18.Lennard-Jones参数(K):575.1

19.溶度参数(J·cm-3)0.5:16.700

20.van der Waals面积(cm2·mol-1):8.100×109

21.van der Waals体积(cm3·mol-1):61.400

22.气相标准燃烧热(焓)(kJ·mol-1):-3952.76

23.气相标准声称热(焓)( kJ·mol-1):-123.29

24.气相标准熵(J·mol-1·K-1) :297.39

25.气相标准生成自由能( kJ·mol-1):32.1

26.气相标准热熔(J·mol-1·K-1):105.34

27.液相标准燃烧热(焓)(kJ·mol-1):-3919.86

28.液相标准声称热(焓)( kJ·mol-1):-156.19

29.液相标准熵(J·mol-1·K-1) :204.35

30.液相标准生成自由能( kJ·mol-1):26.72

31.液相标准热熔(J·mol-1·K-1):155.96

 环己烷MSDS

国标编号: 31004
CAS: 110-82-7
中文名称: 环己烷
英文名称: cyclohexane;hexahydrobenzene
别 名: 六氢化苯
分子式: C6H12;CH2(CH2)4CH2
分子量: 84.16
熔 点: 6.5℃ 沸点:80.7℃
密 度: 相对密度(水=1)0.78;
蒸汽压: -16.5℃
溶解性: 不溶于水,溶于乙醇、乙醚、苯、丙酮等多数有机溶剂
稳定性: 稳定
外观与性状: 无色液体,有刺激性气味
危险标记: 7(易燃液体)
用 途: 用作一般溶剂、色谱分析标准物质及用于有机合成


2.对环境的影响:
一、健康危害
侵入途径:吸入、食入、经皮吸收。
健康危害:对眼和上呼吸道有轻度刺激作用。持续吸入可引起头晕、恶心、倦睡和其它一些麻醉症状。液体污染皮肤可引起痒感。
二、毒理学资料及环境行为
毒性:属低毒类。有刺激和麻醉作用。
急性毒性:LD 5012705mg/kg(大鼠经口)
刺激性:家兔经皮:1548mg(2天),间歇,皮肤刺激。
亚急性和慢性毒性:家兔分别吸入65g/m 3,6小时/天,2周;44g/m 3,6小时/天,2周;32g/m 3,6小时/天,5周,分别出现3/4,1/4,3/4死亡。表现有足爪节律性痉挛、麻醉、暂时轻瘫、流涎、结膜刺激等症状。
致突变性:DNA损伤:大肠杆菌10µmol/L。
危险特性:极易燃,其蒸气与空气可形成爆炸性混合物。遇明火、高热极易燃烧爆炸。与氧化剂接触发生强烈反应,甚至引起燃烧。在火场中,受热的容器有爆炸危险。其蒸气比空气重,能在较低处扩散到相当远的地方,遇明火会引着回燃。
燃烧(分解)产物:一氧化碳、二氧化碳。

3.现场应急监测方法:
气体检测管法

4.实验室监测方法:
气相色谱法《空气中有害物质的测定方法》(第二版),杭士平编

5.环境标准:
中国(TJ36-79) 车间空气中有害物质的最高容许浓度 100mg/m3
前苏联(1977) 居民区大气中有害物最大允许浓度 1.4mg/m3(最大值、昼夜均值)
前苏联(1975) 水体中有害物质最高允许浓度 0.1mg/L
前苏联(1975) 污水排放标准 100mg/L
  嗅觉阈浓度 1.4mg/m3

6.应急处理处置方法:
一、泄漏应急处理

迅速撤离泄漏污染区人员至安全区,并进行隔离,严格限制出入。切断火源。建议应急处理人员戴自给正压式呼吸器,穿消防防护服。尽可能切断泄漏源。防止进入下水道、排洪沟等限制性空间。小量泄漏:用活性炭或其它惰性材料吸收。也可以用不燃性分散剂制成的乳液刷洗,洗液稀释后放入废水系统。大量泄漏:构筑围堤或挖坑收容;用泡沫覆盖,降低蒸气灾害。用防爆泵转移至槽车或专用收集器内,回收或运至废物处理场所处置。
废弃物处置方法:用焚烧法。
二、防护措施
呼吸系统防护:一般不需要特殊防护,高浓度接触时可佩戴自吸过滤式防毒面具(半面罩)。
眼睛防护:空气中浓度超标时,戴安全防护眼镜。
身体防护:穿防静电工作服。
手防护:戴防苯耐油手套。
其它:工作现场严禁吸烟。避免长期反复接触。
三、急救措施
皮肤接触:脱去被污染的衣着,用肥皂水和清水彻底冲洗皮肤。
眼睛接触:提起眼睑,用流动清水或生理盐水冲洗。就医。
吸入:迅速脱离现场至空气新鲜处。保持呼吸道通畅。如呼吸困难,给输氧。如呼吸停止,立即进行人工呼吸。就医。
食入:饮足量温水,催吐,就医。
灭火方法:喷水冷却容器,可能的话将容器从火场移至空旷处。处在火场中的容器若已变色或从安全泄压装置中产生声音,必须马上撤离。灭火剂:泡沫、干粉、二氧化碳、砂土。用水灭火无效。

 环己烷毒性和生态

环己烷毒理学数据:

1.急性毒性

LD50:12705mg/kg(大鼠经口)

LCLo:70000mg/m3(小鼠吸入,2h)

2.刺激性 家兔经皮:1548mg(2d,间歇),皮肤刺激。

3.亚急性与慢性毒性 家兔分别吸入65g/m3,每天6h,2周;44g/m3,每天6h,2周;32g/m3,每天6h,5周,分别出现3/4,1/4,3/4死亡。表现有足爪节律性痉挛、麻醉、暂时轻瘫、流涎、结膜刺激等症状。

4.致突变性 DNA损伤:大肠杆菌10μmol/L

环己烷生态学数据:

1.生态毒性

LC50:93mg/L(24h),117mg/L(96h)(黑头呆鱼,静态);34.72mg/L(96h)(蓝鳃太阳鱼);9mg/L(48h)(青鳉)

EC50:400mg/L(48h)(水蚤);227mg/L(5,30min)(发光菌,Microtox测试)

2.生物降解性

好氧生物降解(h):672~4032

厌氧生物降解(h):2688~16128

3.非生物降解性

水中光氧化半衰期(h):1.40×109~6.90×1010

空气中光氧化半衰期(h):8.7~87

4.生物富集性 BCF:89(理论);31~102(鲤鱼,接触浓度100ppb,接触时间8周);27~129(鲤鱼,接触浓度10ppb,接触时间8周)

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
GU6300000
CHEMICAL NAME :
Cyclohexane
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
110-82-7
LAST UPDATED :
199712
DATA ITEMS CITED :
46
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C6-H12
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
84.18
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
L6TJ

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Standard Draize test
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
12705 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
813 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LCLo - Lowest published lethal concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
70 gm/m3/2H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
5500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Gastrointestinal - hypermotility, diarrhea
TYPE OF TEST :
LCLo - Lowest published lethal concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
89600 mg/m3/1H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - general anesthetic Behavioral - tremor Behavioral - muscle contraction or spasticity
TYPE OF TEST :
LD - Lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
>180 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LC50 - Lethal concentration, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Mammal - species unspecified
DOSE/DURATION :
70 gm/m3
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
300 ppm/6H/2W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Brain and Coverings - other degenerative changes Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - other oxidoreductases
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
15 gm/kg/2W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - other changes in urine composition
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
7444 ppm/6H/2W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Autonomic Nervous System - other (direct) parasympathomimetic Gastrointestinal - hypermotility, diarrhea Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TCLo - Lowest published toxic concentration
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
9220 ppm/6H/5W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Autonomic Nervous System - other (direct) parasympathomimetic Behavioral - tremor Related to Chronic Data - death

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
DNA adduct
TEST SYSTEM :
Bacteria - Escherichia coli
REFERENCE :
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964- Volume(issue)/page/year: 89,95,1981 *** REVIEWS *** ACGIH TLV-TWA 1030 mg/m3 (300 ppm) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: TLV/BEI,1997 *** U.S. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS *** MSHA STANDARD-air:TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3) DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996 Volume(issue)/page/year: 3,65,1971 OSHA PEL (Gen Indu):8H TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1910.1000,1994 OSHA PEL (Construc):8H TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1926.55,1994 OSHA PEL (Shipyard):8H TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 29,1915.1000,1993 OSHA PEL (Fed Cont):8H TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3) CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) Volume(issue)/page/year: 41,50-204.50,1994 *** OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS *** OEL-AUSTRALIA:TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-AUSTRIA:TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-BELGIUM:TWA 300 ppm (1030 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-DENMARK:TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-FINLAND:TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3);STEL 375 ppm (1315 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-FRANCE:TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3);STEL 375 ppm (1300 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-GERMANY:TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-HUNGARY:TWA 500 mg/m3;STEL 1000 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-JAPAN:TWA 150 ppm (520 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-THE NETHERLANDS:TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-THE PHILIPPINES:TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-POLAND:TWA 80 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-RUSSIA:TWA 150 ppm;STEL 80 mg/m3 JAN 1993 OEL-SWEDEN:TWA 300 ppm (1000 mg/m3);STEL 370 ppm (1300 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-SWITZERLAND:TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3);STEL 600 ppm JAN 1993 OEL-TURKEY:TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3) JAN 1993 OEL-UNITED KINGDOM:TWA 300 ppm (1050 mg/m3);STEL 375 ppm JAN 1993 OEL IN BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN, KOREA check ACGIH TLV OEL IN NEW ZEALAND, SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LEVEL (REL) : NIOSH REL TO CYCLOHEXANE-air:10H TWA 300 ppm REFERENCE : NIOSH* National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. Volume(issue)/page/year: DHHS #92-100,1992 NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - 21190 No. of Facilities: 14841 (estimated) No. of Industries: 117 No. of Occupations: 74 No. of Employees: 125761 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - 21190 No. of Facilities: 2260 (estimated) No. of Industries: 37 No. of Occupations: 54 No. of Employees: 55077 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 14873 (estimated)

 环己烷安全信息

[ 符号 ]: GHS02 GHS07 GHS08 GHS09
GHS02, GHS07, GHS08, GHS09
[ 信号词 ]: Danger
[ 危害声明 ]: H225-H304-H315-H336-H410
[ 警示性声明 ]: P210-P301 + P310-P331-P370 + P378-P403 + P235
[ 个人防护装备 ]: Eyeshields;Faceshields;full-face respirator (US);Gloves;multi-purpose combination respirator cartridge (US);type ABEK (EN14387) respirator filter
[ 危害码 (欧洲) ]: F:Flammable
[ 风险声明 (欧洲) ]: R11;R38;R50/53;R65;R67
[ 安全声明 (欧洲) ]: S16-S25-S33-S60-S61-S62-S9
[ 危险品运输编码 ]: UN 1145
[ WGK德国 ]: 2
[ RTECS号 ]: GU6300000
[ 包装等级 ]: II
[ 危险类别 ]: 3
[ 海关编码 ]: 2902110000

 环己烷合成线路

~%

文献:Ohde, Mariko; Ohde, Hiroyuki; Wai, Chien M. Chemical Communications, 2002 ,  # 20  p. 2388 - 2389

~91%

文献:Hong, Do-Young; Miller, Stephen J.; Agrawal, Pradeep K.; Jones, Christopher W. Chemical Communications, 2010 , vol. 46, # 7 p. 1038 - 1040

~99%

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