γ-丁内酯

常用名 γ-丁内酯 英文名 gamma-Butyrolactone
CAS号 96-48-0 分子量 86.089
密度 1.1±0.1 g/cm3 沸点 204.0±0.0 °C at 760 mmHg
分子式 C4H6O2 熔点 −45 °C(lit.)
MSDSγ-丁内酯的MSDS|SDS|pdf下载 中文版 美版 闪点 98.3±0.0 °C
符号 GHS05 GHS07
GHS05, GHS07
信号词 Danger

 γ-丁内酯用途


用于气相色谱固定液(最高使用温度30℃,溶剂为甲醇)。分离分析烃类及各种含氧化合物、永久性气体。合成聚乙烯吡咯烷酮、DL-甲硫氨酸、六氢吡啶、苯丁酸和硫代乙酸等中间体。聚丙烯腈、乙酸纤维、聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯和聚苯乙烯等的溶剂。也是理想的抗氧剂、增塑剂、萃取剂、吸收剂、分散剂、固色剂、凝固剂;在医药行业可用作麻醉剂及镇静剂,可合成环丙沙星和干扰素等。是维生素、环丙胺等的中间体;在农林业方面也有广泛的用途,是生产植物生长剂、杀虫剂等的中间体。此外,还可用作电池、电容器制作,彩卷成色等。 γ-丁内酯是一种溶解性强、无毒、使用管理安全方便的高沸点溶剂,在石油加工中用作丁二烯、芳烃、高级润滑脂的抽提剂;在化纤行业中用作丙烯腈纤维的纺丝溶剂,是羊毛、尼龙、丙烯腈等纤维的染色助剂。在有机合成中,GBL也有广泛的用途,它是合成α-吡咯烷酮、N-甲基吡咯烷酮、乙烯基吡咯烷酮、乙酰基-γ-丁内酯、环丙胺等的原料,是合成杀虫剂、除草剂、药物脑复康、环丙氟哌酸、维生素B1,叶绿素等的中间体。还用于合成氯苯氧基丁酸类除莠剂,植物生长调节剂。 用作环氧树脂胶黏剂的增塑剂,也可用作溶剂。广泛用作树脂、高分子聚合物、石油产品、涂料、油墨、染料及农用化学品的溶剂。也用作润滑油添加剂、染色助剂、燃料油黏度调节剂、丙烯腈纤维凝固剂、摄影药剂分散剂、增稠剂、芳烃萃取剂及导电性溶剂等。在有机合成中,用于制造2-吡咯烷酮、N-甲基-2-吡咯烷酮、聚乙烯吡咯烷酮及丁酸等。在食品工业中可用作白酒、啤酒澄清剂及配制水果及肉类香型的香精。

 γ-丁内酯物理化学性质

[ 密度 ]: 1.1±0.1 g/cm3
[ 沸点 ]: 204.0±0.0 °C at 760 mmHg
[ 熔点 ]: −45 °C(lit.)
[ 分子式 ]: C4H6O2
[ 分子量 ]: 86.089
[ 闪点 ]: 98.3±0.0 °C
[ 精确质量 ]: 86.036781
[ PSA ]: 26.30000
[ LogP ]: -0.76
[ 外观性状 ]: 无色、带有使人不愉快气味的油状液体。
[ 蒸汽密度 ]: 3 (vs air)
[ 蒸汽压 ]: 0.3±0.4 mmHg at 25°C
[ 折射率 ]: 1.442
[ 储存条件 ]:

1.储存于阴凉、通风的库房。远离火种、热源。应与氧化剂、酸类、碱类、食用化学品分开存放,切忌混储。配备相应品种和数量的消防器材。储区应备有泄漏应急处理设备和合适的收容材料。

2.可以用普通钢质容器贮运,不能用橡胶、酚醛树脂、环氧树脂、混凝土和锋利设备贮运,在钢质容器中长期存放颜色略微变黄。贮运时要远离火种、热源,防止阳光直射,保持容器密封。贮存于干燥、阴凉、通风空间内,并与氧化剂、酸类、碱类分开。

[ 稳定性 ]:

1.避免与强氧化剂、强酸、强碱、强还原剂接触。

溶于水、甲醇等,对金属无腐蚀性,可燃,低毒,易被皮肤吸收,应防止与皮肤接触。

化学性质:是较稳定的化合物。在热碱的作用下易发生水解,水解是可逆的,当pH=7时,又生成内酯。在酸性介质中水解较慢。

2.本品属低毒类物质,对中枢神经有麻醉作用,大鼠经口LD50=1800mg/kg,对皮肤有刺激作用,其烟雾对眼睛、黏膜和上呼吸道有刺激作用。

3. 存在于烤烟烟叶、白肋烟烟叶、香料烟烟叶、烟气中。

4. 存在于杏、面包、咖啡中,也是炒榛子的挥发性香成分。

5.制法:

于反应瓶中加入干燥的乙腈2mL,三甲基氯硅烷110mg(1.0mmol),氮气保护下于0℃加入硝酸银187g(1.1mmol),搅拌反应1h。倾出上清液(除去氯化银),搅拌下加至CrO3150mg

(1.5mmol)的1mL乙腈中,搅拌反应15min,得TMSONO2·CrO3氧化剂。冰水浴冷却下慢慢滴加THF(2)(1.0mmol)溶于1mL乙腈的溶液,室温搅拌反应24h。过滤,二氯甲烷洗涤,蒸出溶剂,得粗品(1)。硅胶柱纯化,收率65%。注:①该反应的可能反应机理如下。(参考书494页)
 

[ 水溶解性 ]: MISCIBLE
[ 分子结构 ]:

1、 摩尔折射率:20.18

2、 摩尔体积(cm3/mol):76.2

3、 等张比容(90.2K):186.0

4、 表面张力(dyne/cm):35.4

5、 介电常数:

6、 偶极距(10-24cm3):

7、 极化率:8.00

[ 计算化学 ]:

1.疏水参数计算参考值(XlogP):无

2.氢键供体数量:0

3.氢键受体数量:2

4.可旋转化学键数量:0

5.互变异构体数量:2

6.拓扑分子极性表面积26.3

7.重原子数量:6

8.表面电荷:0

9.复杂度:67.9

10.同位素原子数量:0

11.确定原子立构中心数量:0

12.不确定原子立构中心数量:0

13.确定化学键立构中心数量:0

14.不确定化学键立构中心数量:0

15.共价键单元数量:1

[ 更多 ]:

1. 性状:无色至黄色油状液体,具有类似奶油芳香香气。

2. 相对密度(15℃):1.1286

3. 相对蒸汽密度(g/mL,空气=1):3.0

4. 熔点(ºC):-44

5. 沸点(ºC,常压):206

6. 黏度(mPa·s,25ºC):1.7

7. 折射率(26.5ºC):1.4343

8. 闪点(ºC):99.2

9.自燃点或引燃温度(ºC):455

10.蒸气压(mmHg,20ºC):1.5

11. 饱和蒸气压(kPa, 20ºC):2.0

12. 蒸发热(KJ/mol,204ºC):52.3

13. 临界温度(ºC):457.85

14. 临界压力(KPa):5.131

15. 比热容(KJ/(kg·K),25ºC,定压):1.67

16. 比热容(KJ/(kg·K),60ºC,定压):1.88

17. 爆炸上限(%,V/V):16

18. 爆炸下限(%,V/V):1.4

19. 溶解性:与水混溶,也溶于甲醇、乙醇、乙醚和苯等有机溶剂。

20. 相对密度(20℃,4℃):1.1299

21. 常温折射率(n20):1.4346

22. 常温折射率(n25):1.4348

23. 溶度参数(J·cm-3)0.5:25.593

24. van der Waals面积(cm2·mol-1):6.250×109

25. van der Waals体积(cm3·mol-1):45.890

26. 液相标准热熔(J·mol-1·K-1) :140.0

 γ-丁内酯MSDS

第一部分:化学品名称
化学品中文名称: γ-丁内酯
化学品英文名称: γ-Butyrolactone;4-Butanolide
中文俗名或商品名:
Synonyms:
CAS No.: 96-48-0
分子式: C4H6O2
分子量: 86.09
第二部分:成分/组成信息
纯化学品混合物
化学品名称:γ-丁内酯
有害物成分 含量 CAS No.
γ-丁内酯 100 96-48-0
第三部分:危险性概述
危险性类别:
侵入途径: 吸入 食入 经皮吸收
健康危害: 对皮肤有刺激作用。烟雾对眼睛、粘膜和上呼吸道有刺激作用。
环境危害:
燃爆危险: 本品可燃,具刺激性。
危险特性: 5.12 遇明火、高热易引起燃烧。
安全措施: B04 远离热源、火种,贮于阴凉通风处
B45 应与氧化剂、酸碱类等分储分运
B49 应与氧化剂、食用化学品等分储
B50 应与氧化剂、酸类、食用化学品分储
B51 应与氧化剂、碱类、食用化学品分储
B75 若皮肤或眼睛接触,用清水冲洗
B77 眼睛接触,用流动清水彻底冲洗
B78 吸入,给输氧或作人工呼吸,就医
B80 误食,饮温水,催吐,就医
第四部分:急救措施
皮肤接触: 脱去污染的衣着,用肥皂水及清水彻底冲洗。
眼睛接触: 立即翻开上下眼睑,用流动清水冲洗15分钟。就医。
吸入: 迅速脱离现场至空气新鲜处。呼吸困难时给输氧。呼吸停止时,立即进行人工呼吸。就医。
食入: 误服者给饮足量温水,催吐,就医。
第五部分:消防措施
危险特性: 遇高热、明火或与氧化剂接触,有引起燃烧的危险。
有害燃烧产物: 一氧化碳、二氧化碳
灭火方法及灭火剂: 雾状水、泡沫、二氧化碳、干粉、砂土。
消防员的个体防护: 消防人员须佩戴防毒面具、穿全身消防服,在上风向灭火。尽可能将容器从火场移至空旷处。喷水保持火场容器冷却,直至灭火结束。
禁止使用的灭火剂:
闪点(℃): 98
自燃温度(℃): 引燃温度(℃):455
爆炸下限[%(V/V)]: 1.4
爆炸上限[%(V/V)]: 16
最小点火能(mJ):
爆燃点:
爆速:
最大燃爆压力(MPa):
建规火险分级:
第六部分:泄漏应急处理
应急处理: 切断火源,戴好防毒面具,穿化学防护服。在确保安全情况下堵漏。用大量水冲洗,经稀释的洗液放入废水系统。如大量泄漏,利用围堤收容,然后收集、转移、回收或无害处理后废弃。
第七部分:操作处置与储存
操作注意事项: 密闭操作,全面通风。操作人员必须经过专门培训,严格遵守操作规程。建议操作人员佩戴自吸过滤式防毒面具(半面罩),戴化学安全防护眼镜,穿防毒物渗透工作服,戴橡胶耐油手套。远离火种、热源,工作场所严禁吸烟。使用防爆型的通风系统和设备。防止蒸气泄漏到工作场所空气中。避免与氧化剂、酸类、碱类接触。搬运时要轻装轻卸,防止包装及容器损坏。配备相应品种和数量的消防器材及泄漏应急处理设备。倒空的容器可能残留有害物。
储存注意事项: 储存于阴凉、通风的库房。远离火种、热源。应与氧化剂、酸类、碱类、食用化学品分开存放,切忌混储。配备相应品种和数量的消防器材。储区应备有泄漏应急处理设备和合适的收容材料。
第八部分:接触控制/个体防护
最高容许浓度: 中 国;MAC;未制订标准前苏联MAC:未制订标准美国TLV—TWA:未制订标准美国T
监测方法:
工程控制: 生产过程密闭,全面通风。
呼吸系统防护: 可能接触其蒸气时,戴面具式呼吸器。
眼睛防护: 戴化学安全防护眼镜。
身体防护: 穿防酸碱工作服。
手防护: 戴橡皮胶手套。
其他防护: 工作现场严禁吸烟。工作后,淋浴更衣\注意个人清洁卫生。定期体检。
第九部分:理化特性
外观与性状: 无色、带有使人不愉快气味的油状液体。
pH:
熔点(℃): -44
沸点(℃): 206
相对密度(水=1): 1.13(15℃)
相对蒸气密度(空气=1): 3.0
饱和蒸气压(kPa): 2.0(20℃)
燃烧热(kJ/mol):
临界温度(℃):
临界压力(MPa):
辛醇/水分配系数的对数值: 无资料
闪点(℃): 98
引燃温度(℃): 引燃温度(℃):455
爆炸上限%(V/V): 16
爆炸下限%(V/V): 1.4
分子式: C4H6O2
分子量: 86.09
蒸发速率:
粘性:
溶解性: 与水混溶,可混溶于乙醇、苯、丙酮、乙醚。
主要用途: 用作树脂等的溶剂,也用于制吡咯烷酮、丁酸、琥珀酸、去漆药水等。
第十部分:稳定性和反应活性
稳定性: 在常温常压下 稳定
禁配物: 强氧化剂、强酸、强碱、强还原剂。
避免接触的条件:
聚合危害: 不能出现
分解产物: 一氧化碳、二氧化碳。
第十一部分:毒理学资料
急性毒性: 属低毒类,对皮肤有刺激作用。 LD50:1800mg/kg(大鼠经口);<5ml/kg(豚鼠经皮) LC50:
急性中毒:
慢性中毒:
亚急性和慢性毒性:
刺激性:
致敏性:
致突变性:
致畸性:
致癌性:
第十二部分:生态学资料
生态毒理毒性:
生物降解性:
非生物降解性:
生物富集或生物积累性:
第十三部分:废弃处置
废弃物性质:
废弃处置方法: 根据国家和地方有关法规的要求处置。或与厂商或制造商联系,确定处置方法。
废弃注意事项:
第十四部分:运输信息
危险货物编号:
UN编号:
包装标志:
包装类别:
包装方法:
运输注意事项: 储存于阴凉、通风仓间内。远离火种、热源。防止阳光直射。保持容器密封,应与氧化剂、酸类、碱类分开存放。搬运时要轻装轻卸,防止包装及容器损坏。
RETCS号:
IMDG规则页码:
第十五部分:法规信息
国内化学品安全管理法规: 化学危险物品安全管理条例 (1987年2月17日国务院发布),化学危险物品安全管理条例实施细则 (化劳发[1992] 677号),工作场所安全使用化学品规定 ([1996]劳部发423号)等法规,针对化学危险品的安全使用、生产、储存、运输、装卸等方面均作了相应规定。
国际化学品安全管理法规:
第十六部分:其他信息
参考文献: 1.周国泰,化学危险品安全技术全书,化学工业出版社,1997 2.国家环保局有毒化学品管理办公室、北京化工研究院合编,化学品毒性法规环境数据手册,中国环境科学出版社.1992 3.Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety,CHEMINFO Database.1998 4.Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, RTECS Database, 1989
填表时间: 年月日
填表部门:
数据审核单位:
修改说明:
其他信息: 3
MSDS修改日期: 年月日

 γ-丁内酯毒性和生态

γ-丁内酯毒理学数据:

1、急性毒性:口服-大鼠 LD50:1540 毫克/公斤; 口服-小鼠 LD50:1720 毫克/公斤

2、属低毒类。对皮肤有刺激性,易被皮肤吸收,应防止与皮肤接触。

γ-丁内酯生态学数据:

该物质对水有稍微的危害。

CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

RTECS NUMBER :
LU3500000
CHEMICAL NAME :
2(3H)-Furanone, dihydro-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER :
96-48-0
LAST UPDATED :
199710
DATA ITEMS CITED :
31
MOLECULAR FORMULA :
C4-H6-O2
MOLECULAR WEIGHT :
86.10
WISWESSER LINE NOTATION :
T5OVTJ

HEALTH HAZARD DATA

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1540 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex) Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity) Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - respiratory depression
TYPE OF TEST :
LC50 - Lethal concentration, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Inhalation
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
>5100 mg/m3/4H
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
1 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - general anesthetic Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
1720 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex) Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity) Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - respiratory depression
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intraperitoneal
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
1100 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Behavioral - general anesthetic Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Parenteral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
1600 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LDLo - Lowest published lethal dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Intravenous
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rabbit
DOSE/DURATION :
500 mg/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
TYPE OF TEST :
LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - guinea pig
DOSE/DURATION :
>5 gm/kg
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
REFERENCE :
GAFCC* GAF Material Safety Data Sheet. (GAF Chemicals Corporation, 1361 Alps Road, Wayne, NJ 07470) ** OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE TOXICITY DATA **
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
9600 mg/kg/16D-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - rat
DOSE/DURATION :
40950 mg/kg/13W-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
68 gm/kg/16W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain Related to Chronic Data - death
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
191 gm/kg/2Y-C
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Endocrine - adrenal cortex tumors
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Administration onto the skin
SPECIES OBSERVED :
Rodent - mouse
DOSE/DURATION :
50 gm/kg/42W-I
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Skin and Appendages - tumors Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
25 gm/kg
SEX/DURATION :
male 20 day(s) pre-mating
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Paternal Effects - testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TYPE OF TEST :
TDLo - Lowest published toxic dose
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE :
Oral
DOSE :
500 mg/kg
SEX/DURATION :
female 6-15 day(s) after conception
TOXIC EFFECTS :
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

MUTATION DATA

TYPE OF TEST :
Sister chromatid exchange
TEST SYSTEM :
Rodent - hamster Ovary
DOSE/DURATION :
4940 mg/L
REFERENCE :
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987- Volume(issue)/page/year: 13,60,1989 *** REVIEWS *** IARC Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 11,231,1976 IARC Cancer Review:Human No Adequate Data IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- Volume(issue)/page/year: 11,231,1976 IARC Cancer Review:Group 3 IMSUDL IARC Monographs, Supplement. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.1- 1979- Volume(issue)/page/year: 7,56,1987 *** NIOSH STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE DATA *** NIOSH OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE SURVEY DATA : NOHS - National Occupational Hazard Survey (1974) NOHS Hazard Code - M1130 No. of Facilities: 1476 (estimated) No. of Industries: 12 No. of Occupations: 18 No. of Employees: 5155 (estimated) NOES - National Occupational Exposure Survey (1983) NOES Hazard Code - M1130 No. of Facilities: 4447 (estimated) No. of Industries: 38 No. of Occupations: 42 No. of Employees: 44126 (estimated) No. of Female Employees: 11013 (estimated)

 γ-丁内酯安全信息

[ 符号 ]: GHS05 GHS07
GHS05, GHS07
[ 信号词 ]: Danger
[ 危害声明 ]: H302-H318-H336
[ 警示性声明 ]: P261-P280-P305 + P351 + P338
[ 个人防护装备 ]: Eyeshields;Faceshields;full-face respirator (US);Gloves;multi-purpose combination respirator cartridge (US);type ABEK (EN14387) respirator filter
[ 危害码 (欧洲) ]: Xn
[ 风险声明 (欧洲) ]: R22:Harmful if swallowed. R36:Irritating to the eyes.
[ 安全声明 (欧洲) ]: S26-S36-S39
[ 危险品运输编码 ]: NONH for all modes of transport
[ WGK德国 ]: 1
[ RTECS号 ]: LU3500000
[ 海关编码 ]: 29322980

 γ-丁内酯合成线路

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 γ-丁内酯制备

1、顺酐加氢法 该法是70年代发展的先进工艺,用一段加氢反应,能以任意比例生产四氢呋喃和γ-丁内酯,通常的比例是四氯呋喃:γ-丁内酯=3-4:1。生产企业较多,但规模小,平均300t/a。该法产能占国内总产能的30%。

96-48-0 preparation

2、1,4-丁二醇脱氢法 反应器为列管式,装填片状的铜催化剂(以氧化锌为载体)。反应温度控制在230-240℃。反应产物粗γ-丁内酯经减压蒸馏而得成品,收率77%以上。

96-48-0 preparation

3、是以1,4-丁二醇为原料,先预热,与氢气在铜催化剂存在下反应,温度控制在230~240℃,得到γ-丁内酯粗品,经减压蒸馏而得产品。
4、目前已用顺酐法经加氢而得丁二酸酐,再进一步加氢脱水得产品。

5、烯丙醇法 以芳烃为溶剂、铑络合物为催化剂,将烯丙醇、原料气(H2+CO)醛化,以骨架镍催化加氢得1,4-丁二醇,进而制得γ-丁内酯,联产四氢呋喃。

6、糠醛法 杜邦公司以糠醛在水蒸气中脱羰基得呋喃,进一步氧化生成γ-丁内酯。

7、乙烯醋酸法 乙烯和醋酸在120℃MPa和醋酸锰或二氧化锰催化下,制得成品。

8、β-甲酰基丙酸酯法 β-甲酰基丙酸酯经过加氢还原、水解、脱水环化制得。

精制方法:无水硫酸钙干燥后分馏。也可用水蒸气蒸馏法精制。

9. 烟草:FC,9, 18, 40;BU,OR,40;γ-羟基丁酸分子内酯化;由乙烯基乙酸制取;由1,4-丁二醇脱氢制取;由顺丁烯二酸酐制取,同时有四氢呋喃副产物生成。

10.制法:

于装有搅拌器、回流冷凝器(连一道气管至氯化氢吸收装置)、温度计、滴液漏斗的反应瓶中,加入氯仿250mL,无水三氯化铝250g(1.88mol),搅拌成悬浮液。慢慢滴加氯乙醇42.5g(0.528mol)和丙二酸二乙酯(2)80g(0,5mol)的混合液,约2h加完。反应中不断产生氯化氢气体。放置过夜。冰水浴冷却下,慢慢滴加2mol/L的盐酸250mL分解反应液,同时产生氯化氢气体。加完后慢慢升温,回流反应40h。分出棕红色氯仿液(水层保留),固体物用150mL水溶解。合并水层,用氯仿提取三次。合并氯仿层,水洗至中性,无水氯化钙干燥。蒸出氯仿,而后减压蒸馏,收集85~100℃/1.05kPa的馏分,得γ-丁内酯(1)36g,收率82%。

 γ-丁内酯海关

[ 海关编码 ]: 2932209090
[ 中文概述 ]: 2932209090. 其他内酯. 增值税率:17.0%. 退税率:13.0%. 监管条件:无. 最惠国关税:6.5%. 普通关税:20.0%
[申报要素 ]: 品名, 成分含量, 用途
[ Summary ]: 2932209090. other lactones. VAT:17.0%. Tax rebate rate:13.0%. . MFN tariff:6.5%. General tariff:20.0%

 γ-丁内酯文献98

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